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Testing for Carcinogens

  • J. M. Walker

Abstract

Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that environmental factors are a major cause of cancer.1,2 Although some of these factors are self-imposed (e.g. cigarette smoking) there are many other unintentional routes of carcinogen uptake, such as the diet, and by exposure to both natural and synthetic chemicals present in our environment (e.g. agricultural compounds, medicines, man-made pollutants, etc.). Since it is estimated that up to 80 per cent of all cancers are caused by environmental factors,1 there is considerable justification for effort to be spent on the removal of these carcinogenic substances from our environment, as the identification and control of these substances should lead to a corresponding reduction in cancer incidence. Although epidemiology has proved, and is still proving, successful in identifying environmental factors that are carcinogenic in man, such identifications are necessarily retrospective, only being made after many people have been exposed, for many years, to the carcinogen. The need to test compounds for any carcinogenic effect, before their introduction into our environment, is still therefore a major and necessary requirement. Specific legislation requiring testing for the carcinogenic potential of new pharmaceutical products has existed for some time and such tests are an accepted part of the development of these compounds.

Keywords

Test Compound Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Sister Chromatid Exchange Carcinogenic Potential Chemical Carcinogen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Further Reading

  1. Bridges, B. A., Butterworth, B.E. & Weinstein, I.B. (1983) Banbury Report 13 — Indications of Genotoxic Exposure, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Butterworth, B. (ed.) (1980) Strategies for Short-term Testing for Mutagens/Carcinogens, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  3. de Serres, F.J. & Ashby, J. (eds) (1981) Evaluation of Short-term Tests for Carcinogens. Progress in Mutation Research, vol. 1, Elsevier/North-Holland, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  4. Goldberg, S. (ed.) (1980) Carcinogenicity Testing of Chemicals, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  5. Hollstein, M., McCann, T., Angelosanto, F.A. & Nichols, W.W. (1979) Short-term tests for carcinogens and mutagens. Mut. Res., 65, 133–226Google Scholar
  6. Stich, H.F., & San, R.H.C. (eds) (1981) Short Term Tests for Chemical Carcinogens, Springer-Verlag, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Peter B. Farmer and John M. Walker 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Walker

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