Advertisement

The Clinical Problem

  • M. D. Vincent

Abstract

The relief of human suffering and the intellectual challenge of a problem almost unrivalled in breadth and depth are the two major yet distinct factors motivating cancer research. Thus clinicians (whose job it is to cure people) are primarily concerned with the control of medical events, whereas scientists aim to achieve theoretical understanding of the problems. Failure to cure disseminated cancer is still depressingly frequent and any solution to this problem will require intensive collaboration between clinicians and scientists.

Keywords

Breast Cancer Clinical Problem Muscle Protein Synthesis Cancer Cachexia Medroxyprogesterone Acetate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kardinal, C. & Yarbro, J. (1970) A conceptual history of cancer. Semin. Oncol., 6, 396–408Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Currie, G. & Currie, A. (1982) Cancer: the Biology of Malignant Disease, Edward Arnold, London, p. 97Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Willis, R. (1967) Pathology of Tumours, 4th edn, Butterworths, London, p. 1Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ibid., pp. 4, 8, 22Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bollag, W. (1983) Vitamin A and retinoids: from nutrition to pharmacotherapy in dermatology and oncology. Lancet, i, 860–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Editorial (1984) Molecular biology and lymphoma. Lancet, i, 26Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Canaani, E., et al. (1984) Altered transcription of an oncogene in chronic myeloid leukaemia. Lancet, i, 593–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Woodruff, M. (1983) Cellular heterogeneity in tumours. Br. J. Cancer, 47, 589–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Everson, T. & Cole, W. (1966) Spontaneous Regression of Cancer. W.B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hoffbrand, A. & Janossy, G. (1981) Enzyme and membrane markers in leukaemia: recent developments. J. Clin. Pathol., 34, 254–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Birnie, G. et al. (1983) A new approach to the classification of human leukaemias: measurement of the relative abundance of a specific RNA sequence by means of molecular hybridization. Lancet, i, 197–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Non-Hodgkins Pathologic Classification Project (1982) National Cancer Institute sponsored study of classification of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cancer, 47, 2112–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Beahrs, O. & Meyers, M. (eds) (1983) Manual for Staging of Cancer, 2nd edn, J.B. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Martin, D. (1981) The scientific basis for adjuvant chemotherapy. Cancer Treat. Rev., 8, 169–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Simpson, E., et al. (1983) Absence of parathyroid messenger RNA in nonparathyroid tumours associated with hypercalcaemia. NEJM, 309, 325–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Editorial (1982) Oxford’s tumour marker. Lancet, ii, 25–6Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gold, J. (1974) Cancer cachexia and gluconeogenesis. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 230, 103–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stein, T. (1978) Cachexia gluconeogenesis and progressive weight loss in cancer patients. J. Theor. Biol., 73, 51–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Costa, G., et al. (1965) Changes in the composition of human muscle during the growth of malignant tumours. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 6, 12Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Spector, A. (1975) Fatty acid metabolism in tumours. Prog. Biochem. Pharmacol., 10, 42–75Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carter, A., et al. (1975) Metabolic parameters in women with metastatic breast cancer. J. Clin. Endocrinol., 40, 260–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Conyers, R., et al. (1979) Nutrition and cancer. Br. Med. J., i, 1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    King, W. & Greene, G. (1984) Monoclonal antibodies localise oestrogen receptor in the nuclei of target cells. Nature (Lond.), 307, 745–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Greene, G.L. & Jensen, E.V. (1982) Monoclonal antibodies as probes for estrogen receptor detection and characterization. J. Steroid Biochem., 16, 353–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Downward, J., et al. (1984) Close similarity of epidermal growth factor receptor and v-erb B oncogene protein sequences. Nature (Lond.), 307, 521–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Waterfield, M., et al. (1983) Platelet-derived growth factor is structurally related to the putative transforming protein p28sis of simian sarcoma virus. Nature (Lond.), 304, 35–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cooper, G. & Finkel, T. (1984) Detection of a molecular complex between ras proteins and transferrin receptor. Cell, 136, 1115–21Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nicolson, G. (1984) Cell surface molecules and tumor metastasis. Exp. Cell Res., 150, 3–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Miller, A., et al. (1982) In R. Flamant & C. Fohanno (eds) Evaluation of Methods of Treatment and Diagnostic Procedures in Cancer, U.I.C.C. Technical Report Series, vol. 70, Geneva, pp. 101–9Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hutton, R. (1981) Is cured early cancer truly cancer? Cancer, 47, 1215–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Arthur, M., et al. (1984) Hepatitis B, hepatocellular carcinoma, and strategies for prevention. Lancet, i, 607–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading General Oncology

  1. Hainan, K. (ed.) (1982) Treatment of Cancer, Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. De Vita, V., Hellman, S. & Rosenberg, S. (eds) (1982) Cancer. Principles and Practice of Oncology, J.B. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  3. U.I.C.C. (1978) Clinical Oncology. A Manual f or Students and Doctors, Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Pathology

  1. Walter, J. & Israel, M. (1979) General Pathology, Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  2. Robbins, S. & Cotran, S. (1984) Pathologic Bases of Disease, W.B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Histochemistry

  1. Filipe, M. & Lake, B. (eds) (1983) Histochemistry in Pathology, Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  2. Bancroft, J. & Stevens, A. (eds) (1982) Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques, 2nd edn, Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Metastasis

  1. Liotta, L. & Hart, I. (eds) (1982) Tumour Invasion and Metastasis, Martinus Nijhoff, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  2. Carter, R. (1982) Some aspects of the metastatic process. J. Clin. Pathol., 35, 1041–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Staging

  1. American Joint Committee on Cancer (1983) Manual for Staging of Cancer, 2nd edn, J.B. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Clonality

  1. Woodruff, M. (1982) Interaction of cancer and host. Br. J. Cancer, 46, 313–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Kinetics

  1. Steel, G. (1977) Growth Kinetics of Tumours, Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Conceptual Problems of Diagnosis

  1. Wallace Park, W. (1980) The Histology of Borderline Cancer, with Notes on Prognosis, Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Cancer Biology

  1. Cameron, I. & Pool, T. (eds) (1981) The Transformed Cell, Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Currie, G. & Currie, A. (1982) Cancer: the Biology of Malignant Disease, Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Ruddon, R. (1981) Cancer Biology, Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Cachexia

  1. Editorial (1984) Cancer cachexia. Lancet, i, 833–4Google Scholar
  2. Levin, L. & Gevers, W. (1981) Metabolic alterations in cancer. 5. Afr. Med. J., 59, 518–21/533–56Google Scholar
  3. Racker, E. & Spector, M. (1981) Warburg effect revisited: merger of biochemistry and molecular biology. Science, 213, 303–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Saudek, C. & Telig, P. (1976) The metabolic events of starvation. Am. J. Med., 60, 117–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Symreng, T., et al. (1983) Nutritional assessment reflects muscle energy metabolism in gastric carcinoma. Ann. Surg., 198, 146–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Ectopic Hormone Production

  1. Ratcliffe, J. (1982) Ectopic production of hormones in malignant disease. In J. O’Riordan (ed.) Recent Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 2, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp. 187–209Google Scholar

Further Reading Hormone Therapy

  1. Lippman, M. & Eil, C. (1982) Steroid therapy in cancer. In B. Chabner (ed.) Pharmacologic Principles of Cancer Treatment, W.B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Sem. Oncol. 10, No. 4, Suppl. 4 (1983)Google Scholar
  3. Stoll, B. (ed.) (1982) New aspects of breast cancer, vol. 5, Endocrine Relationships in Breast Cancer. William Heinemann Medical Books, LondonGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

  1. Gadian, D. (1982) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and its Applications to Living Systems, Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Flow Cytometry

  1. Diamond, L., et al. (1981) Flow cytometry in the diagnosis and classification of malignant lymphoma and leukaemia. Cancer, 50, 1122–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Melamed, M., et al. (eds) (1979) Flow Cytometry and Sorting. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Monoclonal Antibodies

  1. Greaves, M., et al. (1982) Analysis of leukaemic cells with monoclonal antibodies. In A. McMichael & J. Fabre (eds) Monoclonal Antibodies in Clinical Medicine, Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Targeting

  1. Gregoriadis, G. (1981) Targeting of drugs: implications in medicine. Lancet, ii, 241–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Biological Modification

  1. Alexander, P. (1982) Need for new approaches to the treatment of patients in clinical remission, with special reference to acute myeloid leukaemia. Br. J. Cancer, 46, 151–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Editorial (1983) Reversal of cancer. Lancet, i, 799–800Google Scholar
  3. Markert, C. (1968) Neoplasia: a disease of cell differentiation. Cancer Res., 23, 1908–14Google Scholar
  4. Moore, M. (ed.) (1983) Maturation Factors and Cancer: Progress in Cancer Research and Therapy, vol. 23, Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Van R. Potter, (1978) Phenotypic diversity in experimental hepatomas: the concept of partially blocked ontogeny. Br. J. Cancer, 38, 1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading Genetic Aspect

  1. Bishop, J.M. (1983) Cellular oncogenes and retroviruses. Ann. Rev. Biochem., 52, 301–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Editorial (1981) Gene therapy: how ripe the time? Lancet, i, 196–7Google Scholar
  3. Hamlyn, P. & Sikora, K. (1983) Oncogenes. Lancet, ii, 326–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Marx, J. (1984) What do oncogenes do? Science, 233, 673–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Marx, J. (1984) Oncogenes linked to growth factor receptor. Science, 233, 806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ponder, B. (1980) Genetics and cancer. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 605, 369–410Google Scholar
  7. Weinburg, R. (1983) A molecular basis of cancer. Sci. Am., 249, 102–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading History of Cancer

  1. Rather, L. (1978) The Genesis of Cancer. A Study in the History of Ideas, Johns Hopkins University Press, London and BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  2. Sem. Oncol., 6, No. 4 (1979)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Peter B. Farmer and John M. Walker 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. D. Vincent

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations