Urinary Citrate Excretion in Normals and Patients with Idiopathic Calcium Urolithiasis
In urine, citrate forms soluble complexes with calcium thereby decreasing the calcium ion activity and, secondarily, the relative supersaturation of both calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate1. In addition, citrate exerts an inhibitory effect on both hydroxy-apatite2 and calcium oxalate crystal growth although the contribution to the latter is minor. The mean urinary citrate excretion in patients with idiopathic calcium urolithiasis has been found to be significantly lower than in control groups4−7 prompting the speculation that hypocitraturia may be an etiologic factor. There are few reports, however, on what constitutes an abnormally low urinary excretion of citrate7,8.
KeywordsUrinary Excretion Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease Urinary Citrate Relative Supersaturation
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