Alternating Crystallization — A Proposed Mechanism for Lamellar Structure Formation in Renal Stones
In 1936 Randall observed that while some kidney stones formed attached to ulcerative lesions on papillae without ureteral stasis, other kidney stones formed in renal pelvices with urinary stasis1. He also observed that the latter kind of stones were frequently laminated, being composed of different urinary salts. More recent studies indicated that partial or complete intrarenal stasis with tubular dilation could also be correlated with kidney lithogenesis, as observed in medullary sponge kidney2, in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients3 and radiologically in idiopathic stone formers4. Moreover, both intracellular and intraluminal microliths of human nephrons have been reported to have a lamellar structure5.
KeywordsKidney Stone Stone Formation Organic Matrix Calcium Oxalate Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
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