Effects of Human Urine on the Aggregation of Calcium Oxalate Crystals: Normal Persons Versus Stone-Formers
During the last 10 years we have carried out experiments on the continuous crystallization of calcium oxalate (CaOx)1–4. These have shown a surprising lack of difference between normal and stone-forming urine (diluted to 5%) when it is added to our synthetic urine3. In addition, we have had technical problems with our MSMPR system which resulted in a crystal product which represented only 30% of that expected4. Recently this has been increased to 90% or more5. Although there was no significant difference in the nucleation rate between stone-forming and normal urine, there was a trend towards increased nucleation in the presence of stone-forming urine which led us to suspect that aggregation was playing a part in the process of stone-formation5–7. Others have studied CaOx crystal aggregation in one form or another8–11 but they have not applied continuous flow techniques to their studies. We have now used our continuous flow (mixed suspension-mixed product removal) (MSMPR) system in series with a Couette agglomerator to analyze further the effects of addition of human urine to synthetic urine.
KeywordsHuman Urine Calcium Oxalate Calcium Oxalate Crystal CaOx Crystal High Molecular Weight Fraction
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- 5.B. Gottung “Calcium Oxalate Agglomeration in Urine-like Mother Liquors”, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Arizona (1983).Google Scholar
- 6.Z. Kraljevich, “Effect of Urinary Macromolecules on Crystallization of Calcium Oxalate in Synthetic Urine Solutions”, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Arizona (1981).Google Scholar
- 12.J. D. Miller, “Crystallization Kinetics of Calcium Oxalate in Simulated Urine”, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Arizona (1976).Google Scholar