Effect of Additives and Whole Urine on Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate Formation

  • X. Martin
  • L. H. Smith
  • P. G. Werness
Conference paper


Calcium oxalate occurs as two different crystal phases in urine, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD). The less stable COD may be a transitional form to COM1. Unlike COM, COD is difficult to obtain in vitro from simple supersaturated solutions of CaOx. However, COD crystals are obtained almost exclusively from precipitation of a mixture of whole urine and ammonium oxalate2. This suggests that urine contains specific substances that promote the formation of COD over COM. The effect of additives, including some inhibitors of CaOx crystal growth on the formation of COD were investigated. Mixtures of CaOx crystal growth inhibitors, and human urine were studied for their ability to form COD. Finally, the effect of pH on the formation of COD in the presence of additives was investigated.


Chondroitin Sulfate Calcium Oxalate Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Fractional Content Ammonium Oxalate 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • X. Martin
    • 1
  • L. H. Smith
    • 1
  • P. G. Werness
    • 2
  1. 1.Nephrology Research UnitMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Service d’Urologie et de Chirurgie de la TransplantationHôpital E. HerriotLyonFrance

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