Urine Supersaturation: the Nucleation, Growth and Dissolution of Stones

  • G. H. Nancollas
Conference paper


It is generally accepted that the formation of stones in the urinary tract involves 4 basic steps: (a) the achievement of solution supersaturation with respect to the mineralizing phase, (b) the formation of stable nidi or nuclei, (c) the development of macrocrystals through crystal growth, aggregation or agglomeration and, (d) the opposing process of dissolution. Elucidation of the controlling mechanisms offers a considerable challenge since the process may result from the failure of natural inhibitors which, in normal subjects, prevent the formation of crystalluria. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the important factors involved in these processes in relation to an understanding of the mechanisms of stone formation.


Calcium Oxalate Constant Composition Crystallization Experiment Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Spiral Growth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    W. G. Robertson, M. Peacock, and B. E. C. Nordin, Clin. Sci. 34:579 (1968).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. G. Robertson, M. Peacock, R. W. Marshall, D. H. Marshall, and B. E. C. Nordin, New Engl. J. Med. 294:249 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Y. C. Pak, J. Clin. Invest. 48:1914 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. G. Robertson and R. W. Marshall, C.R.C. Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci. 15:85 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Gaur and G. H. Nancollas, Kidney Int. (in press)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    I. Tingpo and G. H. Nancollas, Analyt. Chem. 44:1940 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. H. Nancollas, “Interactions in Electrolyte Solutions”, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1966).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. W. Davies, “Ion Association”, Butterworths, London (1962).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. Finlayson, in: “Calcium Metabolism, in Renal Failure, and Nephrolithiasis”, D. S. David, ed., Wiley, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Boistelle and C. Rinaudo, J. Cryst. Growth, 53:1 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. L. Meyer, J. L. Bergert, and L. H. Smith, Clin. Sci. Mol. Med. 52:143 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. H. Nancollas and G. L. Gardner, J. Cryst. Growth 21:267 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. L. Meyer, J. H. Bergert, and L. H. Smith, Clin. Sci. Mol. Med. 49:369 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. G. Koutsoukos, M. E. Sheehan, and G. H. Nancollas, Invest. Urol. 18: 358 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. Finlayson, Invest. Urol. 9:528 (1972).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. D. Miller, A. D. Randolph, and G. W. Drach, J. Urol. 117.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    W. K. Burton, N. Cabrera, and F. C. Frank, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 243:299 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. E. Nielsen and J. Christoffersen, in: “Biological Mineralization and Demineralization”, G. H. Nancollas, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1982).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. E. Nielsen, Pure Appl. Chem. 53:2025 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. P. Barone and G. H. Nancollas, J. Cryst. Growth (in press)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. B. Tomazic and G. H. Nancollas, in: “Urolithiasis:Clinical and Basic Research”, L. H. Smith, W. G. Robertson and B. Finlayson, eds., Plenum, New York (1981).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. C. Lanzalaco, M. E. Sheehan, D. J. White, and G. H. Nancollas, J. Urol. 128:845 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    B. Finlayson, Kidney Int. 13:344 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Lanzalaco, M. Coyle, S. S. Gaur, T. P. Binette, T. S. Herman, G. Sufrin, and G. H. Nancollas, in: “Urolithiasis and Related Clinical Research”, P. O. Schwüle, L. H. Smith, W. G. Robertson, and W. Vahlensieck, eds., Plenum, New York (1985).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. H. Nancollas
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemistry DeptState University of New YorkBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations