Analysis of Urinary Calculi by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy: New Insight into Stone Structure
The constant increase in the incidence of urinary stone disease necessitates intensive endeavours in both scientific and clinical research to gain a deeper understanding of the stone-forming process. In the past 10 to 20 years moderately successful forms of medical treatment have been developed for all types of urinary calculi. An imperative prerequisite for the selection of the appropriate therapy, however, is an accurate knowledge of the stone composition. Stone analysis has become one of the major approaches in the search for a better understanding of the physico-chemical and physiological basis of stone formation and is an essential tool in the formulation of new treatment regimens1. While many techniques have been used in the analysis of urinary calculi, all have certain limitations. New procedures are constantly being developed and applied in the hope of identifying compositional and structural features in stones which might otherwise go undetected owing to the shortcomings of the particular technique available. It is for this reason that we decided to investigate the application of Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy2(ICP-AES) in the analysis of 36 urinary calculi from the Cape Town area. Beneficial aspects of this technique include, amongst others, capability of measuring a large number of elements, high sensitivity and reproducibility, good stability, freedom from inter-element interferences, and linear calibration graphs over several orders of magnitude and speed3.
KeywordsStone Formation Calcium Oxalate Inductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Urinary Calculus Stone Composition
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.M. Modlin, S. Afr. Med. J. 59; 318 (1981).Google Scholar
- 3.S. Greenfield, H. McD. McGeachin, and P. B. Smith, Talanta 22:1 (1975).Google Scholar
- 5.M. A. E. Wandt, M. A. B. Pougnet, and A. L. Rodgers, Analyst (in press).Google Scholar
- 6.A. Hodgkinson, M. Peacock, and M. Nicholson, in: “Proceedings of the Renal Stone Research Symposium, A. Hodgkinson, B. E. C. Nordin, eds., Churchill, London, (1968).Google Scholar
- 9.R. Blaschke, D. B. Leusmann, U.-B. Meyer-JÜrgens, and E. Toile, Beitr. elektronenmikroskop. Direktabb. Oberfl. 14:581 (1981).Google Scholar
- 11.C. Lagergren, Acta Radiol. Suppl. 133:1 (1956).Google Scholar