A Parametric Study of Retinal Light Damage in Albino and Pigmented Rats

  • L. M. Rapp
  • T. P. Williams


Although light serves as the adequate stimulus for vision, it can, under certain conditions, have a deleterious effect on the retina. Using rats as experimental animals, Noell et al. (1) were the first to demonstrate that morphological and functional damage to the retina can result from constant light exposures of only a few hours. The manifestations of damage to the retina included the deterioration and death of the photoreceptors with concurrent losses in the amplitude of the electroretinogram (ERG). Moderate light intensity (1,200 to 2,500 lux), several log-units lower than the levels found necessary to produce threshold retinal burns, was used to produce damage. The action spectrum of the damage corresponded to the absorption spectrum of rhodopsin, the rat’s visual pigment, indicating that damage is initiated by the same primary photochemical event as is vision.


Outer Segment Optic Nerve Head Photoreceptor Cell Visual Pigment Outer Nuclear Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Noell, W. K., Walker, V. S., Kang, B. S. and Berman, S. (1966) Invest. Ophthal. 5, 450–473.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams, D. O., Beatrice, E. S. and Bedell, R. B. (1972) Science 177, 58–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ts’o, M. O. M. (1973) Invest. Ophthal. 12, 17–34.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marshall, J., Mellerio, J. and Palmer, D. A. (1972) Expt’l. Eye Res. 14, 164–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lawwill, T. (1973) Invest. Ophthal. 12, 45–51.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kuwabara, T. and Gorn, R. A. (1968) Archs. Ophthal. 79, 69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Reuter, J. H. and Hobbelen, J. F. (1977) Physiol. Behav. 18, 939–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gorn, R. A. and Kuwabara, T. (1967) Arch. Ophthal. 77, 115–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kuwabara, T. (1970) Amer. J. Ophthal. 70, 187–198.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    O’Steen, W. K., Shear, C. R. and Anderson, K. V. (1972) J. Anat. 134, 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hannson, H. A. (1970) Virchows Archives B, 6, 247–262.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    O’Steen, W. K. and Anderson, K. V. (1972) Expt’1. Neurology 34, 446–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bennett, M. H., Dyer, R. F. and Dunn, J. D. (1973) Expt’l Neurology 38, 80–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grignolo, A., Orzalesi, N., Castellazzo, R. and Vittone, P. (1969) Opthalmologica 157, 43–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Friedman, E. and Kuwabara, T. (1968) Archs. Opthal. 80, 265–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rapp, L. M. and Williams, T. P. (1977) Nature 267, 835–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    O’Steen, W. K. and Kraeer, S. L. (1977) Invest. Ophthal. 16, 940–946.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    LaVail, M. M. (1976) Invest. Ophthal. 15, 64–70.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cone, R. A. and Cobb, W. H., III. (1969) Nature 221, 820–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    O’Steen, W. K. and Lytle, R. B. (1971) Amer. J. Anat. 130, 227–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    O’Steen, W. K., Anderson, K. V. and Shear, C. R. (1974) Invest. Ophthal. 13, 334–341.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Olafson, R. P. and O’Steen, W. K. (1976) Invest. Ophthal. 15, 869–874.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reuter, T. E., White, R. H. and Wald, G. (1971) J. Gen. Physiol. 58, 351–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Besharse, J. C., Hollyfield, J. G. and Rayborn, M. E. (1977) J. Cell Biol. 75, 507–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Battelle, B. and LaVail, M. M. (1978) Exp. Eye Res. 26, 487–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Organisciak, D. T. and Noell, W. K. (1977) Invest. Ophthal. 16, 188–190.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Noell, W. K. and Albrecht, R. (1971) Science 172, 76–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. M. Rapp
    • 1
  • T. P. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations