Cetacean Obstacle Avoidance

  • Patrick W. B. Moore
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (volume 28)


As Schevill (introduction to McBride, 1956) has pointed out, the original ideas about cetacean echolocation were based on observations of the porpoises’ ability to avoid obstacles in turbid waters. McBride (1956) noted that although porpoises (Tursiops truncatus) avoided fine mesh nets, by either rolling over the corkline or swimming directly through any openings in the net, they would charge larger mesh nets (24 cm) and were easily caught.


Sound Pressure Level Obstacle Avoidance Target Strength Minke Whale Harbor Porpoise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andersen, S., 1970, Directional hearing in the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, in: “Investigation on Cetacea, Vol. II”, G. Pilleri, ed., Benteli Ag., Berne.Google Scholar
  2. Awbrey, F. T., (in press), Background study of acoustical and bioacoustical factors in tuna fishing productivity and associated porpoise mortality, Fish. Bull.Google Scholar
  3. Beamish, P., and Mitchell, E., 1971, Ultrasonic sounds recorded in the presence of a blue whale Balaenoptera musculus, Deep-Sea Res., 18:803.Google Scholar
  4. Beamish, P., and Mitchell, E., 1973, Short pulse length audio frequency sounds recorded in the presence of a Minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrate, Deep-Sea Res., Abstra., 20:375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Busnel, R.-G., and Dziedzic, A., 1967, Résultats métrologiques expérimentaux de 1’écholocation chez le Phocoena phocoena et leur comparaison avec ceux de certaines chauves-souris, in: “Animal Sonar Systems, Biology and Bionics”, R.-G. Busnel, ed., Laboratoire de Physiologie Acoustique, Jouy-en-Josas, France.Google Scholar
  6. Diercks, K. J., Trochta, R. T., and Evans, W. E., 1973, Delphinid sonar: measurement and analysis, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 54:200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dudok van Heel, W. H., 1962, Sound and Cetacea, Neth. Jour. Sea Res., 1:407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dudok van Heel, W. H., 1966, Navigation in Cetacea, in: “Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises”, K. S. Norris, ed., U. of Calif. Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  9. Eberhardt, R. L., and Evans, W. E., 1962, Sound activity of the California gray whale, Eschrichtius glaucus, J. Aud. Eng. Soc, 10:324.Google Scholar
  10. Evans, W. E., and Dreher, J. J., 1962, Observations on scouting behavior and associated sound production by the Pacific bottlenosed porpoise (Tursiops gilli Dall), Bull. Soc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 61:217.Google Scholar
  11. Fish, J. F., Sumich, J. L., and Lingle, G. L., 1974, Sounds produced by the gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus, Mar, Fish Rev., 36:38.Google Scholar
  12. Gales, R. S., 1966, Pickup analysis and interpretation of underwater acoustic data, in “Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises”, K. S. Norris, ed., U. of Calif. Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  13. Johnson, C. S., 1966, Auditory thresholds of the bottlenosed porpoise, (Tursiops truncatus Montagu), N. O. T. S. TP 4178.Google Scholar
  14. Kellogg, W. N., 1958, Echo ranging in the porpoise, Science, 128:982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Leatherwood, J. S., Johnson, R. A., Ljungblad, D. K., and Evans, W. E., 1977, “Broadband measurements of underwater acoustic target strengths of panels of tuna nets”, NOSC TR 126, San Diego.Google Scholar
  16. McBride, A. F., 1956, Evidence for echolocation by cetaceans, Deep-Sea Res., 3:153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Murchison, A. E., 1979, Detection range and range resolution of echolocating bottlenose porpoise (Tursiops truncatus), this volume.Google Scholar
  18. Norris, K. S., Prescott, J. H., Asa-Dorian, P. V., and Perkins, P., 1961, An experimental demonstration of echolocation behavior in the porpoise, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu), Biol. Bull., 120:163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Norris, K. S., Stuntz, W. E., and Rogers, W., 1978, The behavior of porpoises in the eastern tropical Pacific yellowfin tuna fishery — Preliminary Report, U.S. Marine Mammal Comm., Report PB-283 970, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  20. Penner, R., and Murchison, A. E., 1970, Experimentally demonstrated echolocation in the Amazon river porpoise Inia geoffrensis (Blainville), Proc. 7th Ann. Conf. Biol. Sonar and Diving Mammals, 7:17.Google Scholar
  21. Perrin, W. F., and Hunter, J. R., 1972, Escape behavior of the Hawaiian spinner porpoise (Stenella cf. S. longirostris), U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Bull., 70:49.Google Scholar
  22. Perryman, W., and Au, D., 1977, Aerial observations of evasive behavior of dolphin schools, Proc. 2nd Conf. Biol. Mar. Mammals, Abstr.Google Scholar
  23. Poulter, T. C., 1968, Vocalization of the gray whales in Laguna Oja de Liebre (Scammon’s Lagoon), Baja, California, Mexico, Norsk Hvalfangsttid, 58:53.Google Scholar
  24. Pryor, K. and Norris, K. S., 1978, The tuna porpoise problem: Behavioral aspects, Oceanus, 21:31.Google Scholar
  25. Rice, C. E., Feinstein, S. H., and Schusterman, R. J., 1965, Echo-detection ability of the blind: size and distance factors, J. Exp. Psych., 70:246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schevill, W. E., 1956, Evidence for echolocation by cetaceans, Deep-Sea Res., 3:153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schevill, W. E., Watkins, W. A., and Ray, C., 1969, Click structure in the porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, J. Mamm., 50:721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schusterman, R. J., 1979, Behavioral methodology in echolocation by marine mammals, this volume.Google Scholar
  29. Sukhoruchenko, M. N., 1973, Frequency discrimination in dolphins (Phocoena phocoena), Sechenov Physiological Jour, of the U.S.S.R., 59(8): 1205.Google Scholar
  30. Supin, A. Ya., and Sukhoruchenko, M. N., 1974, Characteristics of acoustic analyzer of the Phocoena phocoena L. dolphin, in: “Morphology, Physiology, and Acoustics of Marine Mammals”, V. Ye. Sokolov, ed., Nauka, Moscow (English translation JPRS 65139).Google Scholar
  31. Wenz, G. M., 1964, Curious noises and the sonic environment in the ocean, in: “Marine Bio-Acoustics, Proceedings of the First Symposium on Marine Bio-Acoustics, Bimini”, W. N. Tavolga, ed., Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Wood, F. G., 1978, The cetacean stranding phenomenon: an hypothesis, in: “Report on the Marine Mammal Stranding Workshop”, N.T.I.S., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick W. B. Moore
    • 1
  1. 1.SEACO, Inc.KailuaUSA

Personalised recommendations