Discrimination of Complex Information in an Artificially Generated Auditory Space Using New Auditory Sensations

  • Manh Anh Do
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (volume 28)


Wide beam broad band CTFM (continuous transmission frequency modulated) sonar with auditory binaural display was first proposed to be used as a sensory device for the blind person by Kay [16] in 1959. In this system the combined distance and direction of an object is coded in the form of rising pitch with increasing distance (frequency proportional to distance) and the binaural differences which could include that of time, amplitude, and frequency. Subsequent research to optimise this display resulted in a reduction of the interaural differences to that of amplitude only, and this difference measured in dB was designed to be proportional to the azimuthal angle as far as was physically possible [17, 28]. Thus the CTFM sonar with the binaural display (or briefly the binaural sonar) basically performs a one-to-one transform of the two dimensional real space-distance (range) and direction (azimuthal angle) of an object into a two dimensional auditory space described by frequency and interaural amplitude difference (IAD) of a tone. This auditory space was readily produced by means of a sensory aid for the blind [24, 18], and a sonar to locate fish [33, 34]. The evaluations of these two systems were reported in [2, 19, 34, 35, 5].


Frequency Difference Frequency Resolution Basilar Membrane Complex Information Frequency Discrimination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manh Anh Do
    • 1
  1. 1.Radio Engineering LimitedDunedinNew Zealand

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