Advertisement

The Processing of Sonar Echoes by Bats

  • James A. Simmons
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (volume 28)

Abstract

There are two different types of echolocation in bats, really the two extremes of a continuum of variations in the use of echo information by different species. One type is broadband echo-location, used for producing very acute, multidimensional acoustic images of targets, and it is used by all bats. The other is narrowband echolocation, used for target detection and for acoustic imaging of specific target features related primarily to movement. The results of behavioral (Griffin, 1958; Novick, 1977; Schnitzler, 1978; Simmons, 1977, in preparation; Simmons, Howell, Suga, 1975), physiological (Grinnell, 1973; Henson, 1970; Suga, 1973, 1978), and anatomical (Bruns, 1976; Henson, 1970) investigations reveal the existence of these two distinct modes of biological sonar. The dual nature of echolocation appears in the design of the orientation sounds, in the mechanisms for processing the signals, in the performance of echolocation and the kinds of information gathered, and, to the extent that it is understood, in the evolution of echolocation and bats (Simmons, 1979). Many species actually use a mixture of both extremes in different situations (Simmons, Fenton, O’Farrell, 1979).

Keywords

Auditory System Interaural Time Difference Interaural Intensity Difference Peripheral Auditory System Average Doppler Shift 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brugge, J. F., Anderson, D. J., Hind, J. E., and Rose, J. E., 1969, Time structure of discharges in single auditory nerve fibers of the squirrel monkey in response to complex periodic sounds, J. Neurophysiol., 32:386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bruns, V., 1976, Peripheral auditory tuning for fine frequency analysis by the CF-FM bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, II. frequency mapping in the cochlea, J. Comp. Physiol. 106:87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. DeBoer, E., 1977, Pitch theories unified, in: “Physiology and Biophysics of Hearing”, E. F. Evans and J. P. Wilson, eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Fay, R. R., 1978, Coding of information in single auditory-nerve fibers of the goldfish, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 63:136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Feng, A. S., Simmons, J. A., and Kick, S. A., 1978, Echo detection and target-ranging neurons in the auditory system of the bat Eptesicus fuscus, Science, 202:645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goldstein, J. L., and Srulovicz, P., 1977, Auditory-nerve spike intervals as an adequate basis for aural frequency measurement, in: “Physiology and Biophysics of Hearing”, E.F. Evans and J. P. Wilson, eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Griffin, D. R., 1958, “Listening in the Dark”, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1974, Dover Publications, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Grinnell, A. D., 1973, Neural processing mechanisms in echolocating bats, correlated with differences in emitted sounds, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 54:147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grinnell, A. D. and Brown, P., 1978, Long-latency “subthreshold” collicular responses to the constant-frequency components emitted by a bat, Science 202:996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Grinnell, A. D. and Schnitzler, H.-U., 1977, Directional sensitivity of echolocation in the horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. II. Behavioral directionality of hearing, J. Comp. Physiol., 116:63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Henson, O. W., Jr., 1970, The ear and audition, in: “Biology of Bats, Vol. II”, W. A. Wimsatt, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Johnson, R. A., and Titlebaum, E. L., 1976, Energy spectrum analysis; a model of echolocation processing, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 60:484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kiang, N. Y.-S., 1966, “Discharge Patterns of Single Fibers in the Cat’s Auditory Nerve”, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  14. Liberman, M. C., 1978, Auditory-nerve response from cats raised in a low-noise chamber, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 63:442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Licklider, J. C. R., 1959, Three auditory theories, in: “Psychology, a Study of a Science”, S. Koch, ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Long, G. R., 1977, Masked auditory thresholds from the bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, J. Comp. Physiol., 116:247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McCue, J. J. G., 1969, Signal processing by the bat, Myotis lucifugus, J. Aud. Res., 9:100.Google Scholar
  18. Nordmark, J. O., 1978, Frequency and periodicity analysis, in: “Handbook of Perception, Vol. IV. Hearing”, E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Novick, A., 1977, Acoustic orientation, in: “Biology of Bats, Vol. III”, W. A. Wimsatt, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. O’Neill, W. E., and Suga, N., 1979, Target range-sensitive neurons in the auditory cortex of the mustache bat, Science, 203:69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Peff, T. C., and Simmons, J. A., 1972, Horizontal-angle resolution by echolocating bats, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 51:2063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pollak, G. D., Marsh, D. S., Bodenhamer, R., and Souther, A., 1977, Characteristics of phasic on neurons in inferior colliculus of unanesthetized bats with observations relating to mechanisms for echo ranging, J. Neurophysiol., 40:926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Rose, J. E., Brugge, J. F., Anderson, D. J., and Hind, J. E., 1967, Phase-locked responses to low-frequency tones in single auditory nerve fibers of the squirrel monkey, J. Neurophysiol., 30:679.Google Scholar
  24. Schnitzler, H.-U., in press, Die Detektion von Bewegungen durch Echoortung bei Fledermäusen, Hand. Dtsch. Zool. Ges.Google Scholar
  25. Siebert, W. M. 1973, Hearing and the ear, in: “Engineering Principles in Physiology, Vol. I”, J. H. U. Brown and D. S. Gann, eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Simmons, J. A., 1973, The resolution of target range by echolocating bats, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 54:157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Simmons, J. A., 1974, Response of the Doppler echolocation system in the bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 56:672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Simmons, J. A., 1977, Localization and identification of acoustic signals, with reference to echolocation, in: “Recognition of Complex Acoustic Signals”, T. H. Bullock, ed., Dahlem Konferenzen, Berlin.Google Scholar
  29. Simmons, J. A., 1979, Phylogenetic adaptations and the evolution of echolocation in bats (Chiroptera), in: “Proceedings of the Fifth International Bat Research Conference”, Texas Tech University Press, Lubbock, Texas.Google Scholar
  30. Simmons, J. A., in preparation, Perception of echo phase information in bat sonar.Google Scholar
  31. Simmons, J. A., Fenton, M. B., and O’Farrell, M. J., 1979, Echo-location and pursuit of prey by bats, Science, 203:16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Simmons, J. A., Howell, D. J., and Suga, N.; 1975, Information content of bat sonar echoes, Amer. Sci., 63:204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Simmons, J. A., Lavender, W. A., and Lavender, B. A., 1978, Adaptation of echolocation to environmental noise by the bat, Eptesicus fuscus, in: “Proceedings of the Fourth International Bat Research Conference”, Kenya National Academy for Advancement of Arts and Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  34. Simmons, J. A., Lavender, W. A., Lavender, B. A., Childs, J. E., Hulebak, K., Rigden, M. R., Sherman, J., Woolman, B., and O’Farrell, M. J., 1978, Echolocation by free-tailed bats (Tadarida), J. Comp. Physiol., 125:291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Simmons, J. A., Lavender, W. A., Lavender, B. A., Doroshow, C. F., Kiefer, S. W., Livingston, R., Scallet, A. C., and Crowley, D. E., 1974, Target structure and echo spectral discrimination by echolocating bats, Science, 186:1130,PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Simmons, J. A., and Stein, R. A., in preparation, Acoustic imaging in bat sonar; the echolocation signals.Google Scholar
  37. Suga, N., 1970, Echo-ranging neurons in the inferior colliculus of bats, Science, 170:449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Suga, N., 1973, Feature extraction in the auditory system of bats, in: “Basic Mechanisms in Hearing”, A. R. Møller, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Suga, N., 1978, Specialization of the auditory system for reception and processing of species-specific sounds, Federation Proceedings, 37:2342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Suga, N., and Jen, P. H.-S., 1975, Peripheral control of acoustic signals in the auditory system of echolocating bats, J. Exp. Biol., 62:277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Suga, N., and Jen, P.H.-S., 1977, Further studies on the peripheral auditory system of “CF-FM” bats specialized for the fine frequency analysis of Doppler-shifted echoes, J. Exp..Biol., 69; 207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Suga, N., Neuweiler, G., and Möller, J., 1976, Peripheral auditory tuning for fine frequency analysis by the CF-FM bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. IV. Properties of peripheral auditory neurons, J. Comp. Physiol., 106:111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Suga, N., O’Neill, W. E., and Manabe, T., 1978, Cortical neurons sensitive to combinations of information-bearing elements of bio-sonar signals in the mustache bat, Science, 200:778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Suga, N., and Schlegel, P., 1973, Coding and processing in the nervous system of FM signal-producing bats, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 84:174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Suga, N., Simmons, J. A., and Jen, P. H.-S., 1975, Peripheral specialization for fine frequency analysis of Doppler-shifted echoes in the auditory system of the “CF-FM” bat, Pteronotus parnellii, J. Exp. Biol., 63:161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Suga, N., Simmons, J. A., and Shimozawa, T., 1974, Neurophysiological studies on echolocation systems in awake bats producing CF-FM orientation sounds, J. Exp. Biol., 61:379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Webster, F. A., and Griffin, D. R., 1962, The role of the flight membranes in insect capture by bats, Anim. Behav., 10:332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wever, E. G., 1949, “Theory of Hearing”, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Whitfield, I. C., 1978, The neural code, in: “Handbook of Perception, Vol. IV: Hearing”, E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman, eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Wightman, F. L., 1973, The pattern-transformation model of pitch, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 54:407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • James A. Simmons
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Psychology and BiologyWashington UniversitySt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations