For centuries, Chinese intellectuals have been under the influence of the psychological concepts of Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism. The secret book of Upanishads has described four mental states, two of them unconscious and two conscious. Sleeping and dreaming were believed to be unconscious, while waking and meditation were conscious. The latter state represented the highest level of awareness, reaching a total tranquillity and inner harmony. One of these states is the Yoga.


Psychological Concept Occupational Distribution Chinese Nation Chinese Intellectual Western Influence 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin B. Wolman

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