The pancreas houses insulin, the most powerful known metabolic regulator. In addition to the β cell, Langerhan’s pancreatic islets also contain D cells producing somatostatin, a cells producing glucagon and PP cells producing pancreatic polypeptide (Fig. 1). Between them these cells have the power to stimulate or suppress numerous physiological functions. A major and frequent challenge to the constancy of the “milieu intérieur” is the daily ingestion of food. The smooth assimilation of oral nutriments requires an efficiently controlled digestive process and a precise adjustment of metabolic regulators. To this end a complicated control system exists. This is partly neural, thus allowing an early flow of information from the anticipation, smell and taste of food, and partly hormonal, utilising the diffuse endocrine system of the gut to produce an integrated signal proportional to the amount and type of food ingested. Only if the first two mechanisms fail to fully adjust metabolic regulators, such as pancreatic insulin, would a significant disturbance of circulating nutriments occur and stimulate the pancreatic islets directly.
KeywordsInsulin Release Coeliac Disease Pancreatic Polypeptide Glucagon Release Pancreatic Glucagon
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Solcia E, Polak JM, Pearse AGE, Forssman WG, Larsson L-I, Sundler F, Lechago J, Grimelius L, Fujita T, Creutzfeldt W, Gepts W, Falkmer S, Lefranc G, Heitz Ph, Hage E, Buchan AMJ, Bloom SR, Grossman MI: Lausanne 1977 classification of gastroenteropancreatic endocrine cells. In: Gut Hormones, edited by SR Bloom, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1978, p. 40–48Google Scholar
- 4.Adrian TE, Greenberg GR, Besterman HS, McCloy RF, Chadwick VS, Barnes AJ, Mallinson CN, Baron JH, Alberti KGMM, Bloom SR: PP infusion in man — summary of initial investigation. In: Gut Hormones, edited by SR Bloom, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1978, p. 265–267Google Scholar
- 6.Adrian TE, Bloom SR, Hermansen K, Iversen J: Pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon and insulin secretion from the isolated perfused canine pancreas. Diabetologia, in pressGoogle Scholar
- 7.Mortimer CH, Carr D, Lind T, Bloom SR, Mallinson CS, Schally AV, Tunbridge WMG, Yeomans L, Coy DH, Kastin A, Besser GM: Growth hormone release inhibiting hormone: effects on circulating glucagon, insulin and growth hormone in normal, diabetic, acromegalic and hypopituitary patients. Lancet I: 697–701, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Nabarro JDN, Hall R, Besser GM, Coy DH, Kastin AJ, Schally AV: Glucagon control of fasting glucose in man. Lancet II: 974, 1974Google Scholar
- 9.Bloom SR: Glucagon: a stress hormone. Postgraduate Medical Journal 49: 607–612, 1973Google Scholar
- 13.Brown JC, Mutt V, Pederson RA: Further purification of a polypeptide demonstrating enterogastrone activity, J. Physiol. 209: 56–64, 1970Google Scholar
- 16.Besterman HS, Bloom SR, Sarson DL, Blackburn AM, Johnston DI, Patel HR, Stewart JS, Modigliani R, Guerin S, Mallinson CN: Characteristic gut hormone profile in coeliac disease. Lancet, in pressGoogle Scholar
- 20.Bloom SR, Edwards AV, Hardy RN: The role of the autonomic nervous system in the control of pancreatic endocrine responses to the ingestion of milk in the conscious calf, J. Physiol., in pressGoogle Scholar
- 22.Bloom SR, Edwards AV: Effects of certain inhibitory or blocking agents on the release of pancreatic glucagon in response to stimulation of the splanchnic nerves. J, Physiol., in pressGoogle Scholar