Spectrophotometric, Spectrofluorometric and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Methods for the Determination of Anions in Water

  • David F. Boltz
Part of the Progress in Analytical Chemistry book series (PAC)

Abstract

In surveying for many years the inorganic and organic analytical chemistry sections of Chemical Abstracts, it has been quite apparent that the attention given to the determination of anions is much less than that given to the determination of cations. This symposium reserved for the consideration of the determination of anions is indicative of an increasing awareness of the importance of this facet of the chemical analysis of water and the importance of having reliable methodology for the quantitation of the concentration of anions. The essential steps in the methodology involved in the determination of anions, namely: sampling; preliminary chemical treatments; analytical separations; and measurement of anion concentration by spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, and atomic absorption spectrometry will be discussed in sequence.

Keywords

Sulfide Zirconium Silicate Boron Palladium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Luke, C. L. and Flaschen, S. S., Anal. Chem., 30, 1406 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lundgren, D. P. and Loeb, N. P., Anal. Chem., 33, 366 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benz, C. and Paixo, L. M., Chim. Anal. (Paris), 50, 247 (1968).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kawanabe, K., Takitani, S., Miyazaki, M., and Tamura, Z., Bunseki Kagaku, 13, 976 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sciler, H. and Kaffenburger, T., Helv. Chim. Acta, 44, 1282 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Megregian, S., Anal. Chem., 26, 1161 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hanker, J. S., Gelberg, A. and Witten, B., Anal. Chim., 30, 93 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boltz, D. F., Developments in Applied Spectroscopy (Edited by E. L. Grove and A. J. Perkins) p. 222–6, Plenum Press, New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Looyenga, R. W. and Huber, C. O., Anal. Chem., 43, 498 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Am. Public Health Assoc., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater., 13th Edition, p. 518–534, Washington, D. C., 1971.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zaugg, W. S. and Knox, R. J., Anal. Chem., 38, 1759 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kumamaru, T., Otani, Y., and Yamomoto, Y., Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 40, 429 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kirkbright, G. F., Smith, A. M., and West, T. S., Analyst, 92, 411 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hurford, T. R. and Boltz, D. F., Anal. Chem., 40, 379 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ramaskrishna, R. V., Robinson, J. W., and West, P. W., Anal. Chim. Acta, 45, 43 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kirkbright, G. F., Narayanaswamy, R., and West, T. S., Anal. Chem., 43, 1434 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Land, D. B. and Edmonds, S. M., Microchim. Acta, 1966, 1013.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Potter, G. V., Colorimetric Determination of Nonmetals (Edited by D. F. Boltz), p. 47–74, Interscience, New York, 1958.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Trudell, L. A. and Boltz, D. F., Anal. Chem., 35, 2122 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Trudell, L. A. and Boltz, D. F., Anal. Lett., 3, 465 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Trudell, L. A. and Boltz, D. F., Talanta, 19, 37 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Djurkin, V., Kirkbright, G. F., and West, T. S., Analyst, 91, 89 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Trudell, L. A. and Boltz, D. F., Mikrochim. Acta, 1970, 1220.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Griess, P., Ber. 12, 426 (1879).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kieruczenko, A., Chem. Anal. (Warsaw), 12, 103 (1967).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Warington, R., J. Chem. Soc., 39, 229 (1881).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ilsovay, M. L., Ball. soc. chim., [3], 2 388 (1889).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Weston, R. S., Proc. Am. Chem. Soc., 27, 283 (1905).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bratton, A. C., Marshall, E. K., Bobbitt, D., and Hendrickson, A. R., J. Biol. Chem., 128, 539 (1939).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Barnes, H. andFolkard, A. R., Analyst, 76, 599 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rider, B. F. and Mellon, M. G., Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed., 18, 96 (1946).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sawicki, E., Stanley, T. W., Pfaf, J., and Johnson, H., Anal. Chem., 35, 2183 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Am. Public Health Assoc., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 13th Edition, p. 240–243, Washington, D. C., 1971.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wada, E. and Hattori, A., Anal. Chim. Acta, 56, 233 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pappenhagen, J. M. and Mellon, M. G., Anal. Chem., 25, 341 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Z. Perez, M. Acta Cient. Compostelana, 5, 159 (1968).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Weiss, K. G., and Boltz, D. F., Anal. Chim. Acta, 55, 77 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wiersma, J. H., Anal. Lett., 3, 123 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Taras, M. J., Colorimetric Determination of Nonmetals, Boltz, D. F. (Editor), p. 135, Inter science, New York, 1958.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Am. Public Health Assoc., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 13th Ed., p. 233, 454, Washington, D. C., 1971.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Taras, M. J., Anal. Chem., 22, 1020 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jenkins, D. and Medsker, L. L., Anal. Chem., 36, 610 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    West, P. W. and Ramachandran, T. P., Anal. Chim. Acta, 35, 317 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pokorny, G. and Likussar, W., Anal. Chim. Acta, 42, 253 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hoather, R. C. and Rackham, R. F., Analyst, 84, 548 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goldman, E, and Jacobs, R. J., J. Amer. Water Works Ass., 53, 187 (1961).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Armstrong, F. A. J., Anal. Chem., 35, 1292 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bhatty, M. K. and Townshend, A., Anal. Chim. Acta, 56, 55 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kumamatu, T., Otani, Y., and Yamamoto, Y., Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 40, 429 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Burns, D. T., Fogg, A. G., and Willcox, A., Mikrochim. Acta, 1971, 205.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Am. Public Health Assoc., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 13th Ed., p. 344, Washington, D. C., 1971.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bertolacini, R. J. and Barney, J. E. II, Anal. Chem., 29, 281 (1957); 30, 202, 498 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gustafsson, L., Talanta, 4, 227–243 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dunk, R., Mostyn, R. A., and Hoare, H. C., Atomic Abs. Newsletter, 8, 79 (1968).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Borden, F. Y., and McCormick, L. H., Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc., 34, 705 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Roe, D. A., Miller, P. S., and Lutwak, L., Anal. Biochem., 15, 3 13 (1966).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rose, S. A., and Boltz, D. F., Anal. Chim. Acta, 44, 239 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Little, I. P., Reeve, R., Proud, G. M., Lulham, A., J. Sci Food Agr., 20, 673 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tann, L. H. and West, T. S., Analyst, 96, 281 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bunton, N. G. and Tait, B. H., J. Amer. Water Works Ass., 61, 357 (1969).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lishka, R. J., J. Amer. Water Works Ass., 53, 1517 (1961).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Spicer, G. S. and Strickland, J. D. H., Anal. Chim. Acta, 18, 231 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Spicer, G. S. and Strickland, J. D. H., J. Chem. Soc., 1952, 4644–53.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hatcher, J. T. and Wilcox, L. V., Anal. Chem., 22, 567 (1950).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Am. Public Health Assoc., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 13th Ed., p. 69, Washington, D. C. (1971).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Malyuga, D. P., Agrokhimiya, 1969, 134.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Malyuga, D. P., Zavod Lab., 35, 279 (1969).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hulthe, P., Uppstrom, L., and Ostling, G., Anal. Chim. Acta, 51, 31 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lionnel, L. J., Analyst, 95, 194 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gupta, H. K. L. and Boltz, D. F., MLkrochim. Acta, 1971, 577.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Rudolph, G. A. and Flickinger, L. C., Steel, 112, 114 (1943).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gupta, H. K. L. and Boltz, D. F., Anal. Lett., 4, 161 (1971).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Danielsson, L., Talanta, 3, 138 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ducret, L., Anal. Chim. Acta, 17, 213 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Babko, A. K. and Marchenko, P. V., Zavod. Lab., 26, 1202 (1960).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Poluektov, N. S., Kononenko, L. I., and Lauer, R. S., Zh. Anal. Khim., 13, 396 (1958).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pasztor, L. C. and Bode, J. D., Anal. Chim. Acta, 24, 467 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pasztor, L. C. and Bode, J. D., Anal. Chem., 32., 1530 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pasztor, L. C., Bode, J. D., and Fernando, Q., Anal. Chem., 32, 277 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    White, C. E., Weissler, A., and Busker, D., Anal. Chem., 19, 802 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    White, C. E. and Hoffman, D. E., Anal. Chem., 29., 1 105 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Epstein, J., Anal. Chem., 19, 272 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kruse, J. M. and Mellon, M. G., Sewage and Ind. Wastes,23, 1402 (1951).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Am. Public Health Assoc., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 13th Ed., p. 404, Washington, D. C., 1971.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Schilt, A., Anal. Chem., 30, 1409 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Danchik, R. S. and Boltz, D. F., Anal. Chim. Acta, 49, 567 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lambert, J. L. and Manzo, D. J., Anal. Chem., 40, 1354 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nomura, T., Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 41, 1619 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Guilbault, G. G. and Kramer, D. N., Anal. Chem., 37, 1395 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Guilbault, G. G. and Kramer, D. N., Anal. Chem., 38, 834 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Humphrey, R. E. and Hinze, W., Talanta, 18, 491 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dagnal, R. M., El-Ghamry, M. T., and West, T. S., Talanta, 15, 107 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Humphrey, R. E. and Hinze, W., Anal. Chem., 43, 1100 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Casapieri, P., Scott, R., and Simpson, E. A., Anal. Chim. Acta, 49, 188 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Florence, T. M. and Farrar, Y. J., Anal. Chim. Acta, 54, 373 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Yamamoto, Y., Kumamaru, T., Tatehota, A., Yamada, N., Anal. Chim. Acta, 50, 433 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Westerlund-Helmerson, J., At. Absorption Newsletter, 5, 97 (1966).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Moldaln, B. and Zyka, J., Microchem. J., 13, 357 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Archimbaud, M. and Bertrand, M. R., Chim. Anal. (Paris), 52, 531 (1970).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Matthews, A. D. and Riley, J. P., Anal. Chim. Acta, 51, 295 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Macejunas, A., J. Amer. Water Works Assoc., 61, 311 (1969).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Harwood, J. E. and Huyser, D. J., Water Res., 2, 637 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Am. Public Health Assoc., Standard Methods of Analysis for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 13th Ed., p. 339, Washington, D. C. (1971).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Courtot-Coupez, J. and LeBihan, A., Anal. Lett., 2, 211 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    LeBihan, A. and Courtot-Coupoz, J., Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1, 406 (1970).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • David F. Boltz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA

Personalised recommendations