Rattus norvegicus (n=20 + X + Y) After the house mouse, the rat has the largest number of known linked pairs of genes. Curiously, not the largest number of linkage groups (this falls to the rabbit) because most of the linked genes belong to one system. Some 40 to 45 mutant gene/loci have been described and 35 have featured in studies of linkage and independent assortment. A detailed discussion of the early work in linkage may be found in Robinson (1960); while a general description of most of the mutant genes is provided by Robinson (1965).


Linkage Group Linkage Study Meiotic Division Rattus Norvegicus Chiasma Frequency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. BIANCHI, N. O. and MOLINA, O. (1966). Autosomal polymorphism in a laboratory strain of rat. J. Hered., 57, 231–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. BILLINGHAM, R. E., HODGE, B. A. and SILVERS, W. (1962). An estimate of the number of histocompatibility loci in the rat. Proc. Nat.Acad. Sci., 48, 138–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. BLUNN, G.T. and GREGORY, P. W. (1937). Linkage studies with curly2 in the rat. J. Hered., 28, 43–44.Google Scholar
  4. BODGEN, A. E. and APTEKMAN, P. M. (1960). The R-l factor, a histocompatibility antigen in the rat. Cancer Res., 20, 1372–1382.Google Scholar
  5. BOGDEN, A. E. and APTEKMAN, P. M. (1962). Histocompatibility antigens and hemagglutinogens in the rat. Annal. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 97, 43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BOURICIUS, J. K. (1948). Embryological and cytological studies in rats heterozygous for a probable reciprocal translocation. Genetics, 33, 577–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. BRDICKA, R. (1966). Evidence for linkage between haemoglobin and chromogen loci. Folia Biol. (Praha), 12, 305–306.Google Scholar
  8. BRDICKA, R. (1967). Genetics of rat haemoglobin. Proc. X. Europ.Confer. Anim. Blood Biochem. Polymorph., Paris, 1966, 407–411.Google Scholar
  9. BRDICKA, R. (1968). The chromosome I of the laboratory rat. ActaUniv. Carol. Med., 14, 93–98.Google Scholar
  10. BRYDEN, W. (1932). Cytogenetic studies on the rat; somatic chromosome complex, meiosis and chiasma frequency. J. Genet, 26, 395–415.Google Scholar
  11. BRYDEN, W. (1933a). The effect of sex on the frequency of chiasma formation and its relation to crossingover in the Wistar rat. Cytologia, 4, 241–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. BRYDEN, W. (1933b). The relation of age to the frequency of chiasma formation in the Wistar rat. J. Genet., 27, 415–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. BRYDEN, W. (1935). Some observations upon the mitotic and meiotic divisions in the Wistar rat. I. The effect of changes in temperature. Cytologia, 6, 300–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. BRYDEN, W. (1936a). Some observations upon the mitotic and meiotic divisions in the Wistar rat. II. Changes in temperature over localized areas. Cytologia, 7, 389–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. BRYDEN, W. (1936b). Some observations upon the mitotic and meiotic divisions in the Wistar rat. III. Effects produced by experimental cryptorchidism. Cytologia, 7, 499–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. BRYDEN, W. (1937). Some observations upon the mitotic and meiotic divisions in the Wistar rat. IV. Effect of factors influencing the functional development of the male gonad. Cytologia, Fujiijub. vol., 627–632.Google Scholar
  17. BURHOE, S. O. (1947). Blood groups of the rat. (Rattus norvegicus) and their inheritance. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 33, 102–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. CASTLE, W. E. (1916). Further studies of piebald rats and selection, with observations on gametic coupling. Car. Inst. Wash. Pub., 241.Google Scholar
  19. CASTLE, W. E. (1919). Observations on the occurrence of linkage in rats and mice. Car. Inst. Wash. Pub., 288, 29–36.Google Scholar
  20. CASTLE, W. E. (1920). The measurement of linkage. Amer. Nat, 264–267.Google Scholar
  21. CASTLE, W. E. (1926). A sex difference in linkage in rats and mice. Genetics, 10, 580–582.Google Scholar
  22. CASTLE, W. E. (1939). On a method for testing for linkage between lethal genes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 25, 593–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. CASTLE, W. E. (1942). Experimental studies of heredity in small mammals. Car. Inst. Yearb., no. 41, 225–226.Google Scholar
  24. CASTLE, W. E. (1944). Linkage of waltzing in the rat. Proc. Nat. Acad.Sci U.S.A., 30, 226–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. CASTLE, W. E. (1946). Linkage in the albino chromosome of the rat. Proc. Nat Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 32, 33–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. CASTLE, W. E. (1947). The domestication of the rat. Proc. Nat. Acad.Sci U.S.A., 33, 109–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. CASTLE, W. E. (1952). Genetic linkage in the common rat, Rattusnorvegicns. Virginia J. Sci., 3, 95–100.Google Scholar
  28. CASTLE, W. E. (1953). Silver, a new mutation of the rat. J. Hered., 44, 205–206.Google Scholar
  29. CASTLE, W. E. (1955). Further studies of linkage in the third chromosome of the rat. J. Hered., 46, 84–86.Google Scholar
  30. CASTLE, W. E., DEMPSTER, E. R. and SHURRAGER, W. C. (1955). Three new mutations of the rat. J. Hered., 46, 9–14.Google Scholar
  31. CASTLE, W. E. and KING, H. D. (1940). Linkage studies of the rat (Rattus norvegicus) III. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 26, 578–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. CASTLE, W. E. and KING, H. D. (1941). Linkage studies of the rat (Rattus norvegicns) V. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 27, 394–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. CASTLE, W. E. and KING, H. D. (1944). Linkage studies of the rat. (Rattus norvegicns). VI. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 30, 79–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. CASTLE, W. E. and KING, H. D. (1947a). Linkage studies of the rat. VII. Shaggy, a new dominant. J. Hered., 38, 341–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. CASTLE, W. E. and KING, H. D. (1947b). Linkage studies of the rat. VIII. Fawn, a new color dilution gene. J. Hered., 38, 343–344.Google Scholar
  36. CASTLE, W. E. and KING, H. D. (1948). Linkage studies of the rat. IX. Cataract. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 35, 135–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. CASTLE, W. E. and KING, H. D. (1949). Linkage studies of the rat. X. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 35, 545–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. CASTLE, W. E., KING, H. D. and DANIELS, A. L. (1941). Linkage studies of the rat (Rattus norvegicns). IV. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 27 250–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. CASTLE, W. E. and WACHTER, W. L. (1924). Variation of linkage in rats and mice. Genetics, 9, 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. CASTLE, W. E. and WRIGHT, S. (1915). Two colour mutations of rats which show coupling. Science, 42, 193–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. DARLINGTON, C. D., HALDANE, J. B. S. and KOLLER, P. C. (1934). Possibility of incomplete sex linkage in mammals. Nature, 133, 417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. DETLEFSEN, J. A. (1925). The linkage of dark-eye and color in mice. Genetics, 10, 17–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. DUNN, L. C. (1920). Linkage in rats and mice. Genetics, 5, 325–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. DINNING, W. F. and CURTIS, M. R. (1939). Linkage in rats between factors determining a pathological condition and a coat colour. Genetics, 24, 70.Google Scholar
  45. DYBAN, A. P. and UDALOVA, L. D. (1967). [The characteristic morphological features of the X chromosome and the third pair of autosomes in different strains of rats.] Genetika (Mosk.), 1967 (2), 125–135.Google Scholar
  46. FELDMAN, H. W. (1924). Linkage of albino allelomorphs in rats and mice. Genetics, 9, 487–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. FELDMAN, H. W. (1935). A recessive curly-haired character of the Norway rat. J. Hered., 26, 252–254.Google Scholar
  48. FITZGERALD, P. H. (1961). Cytological identification of sex in somatic cells of the rat. Exp. Cell Res., 25, 191–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. FRENCH, E. A., ROBERTS, K. B. and SEARLE, A. G. (1971). Linkage between a haemoglobin locus and albinism in the Norway rat. Biochem.Genet, 5, 597–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. GREAVES, J. H. and AYRES, P. (1969). Linkages between genes for coat colour and resistance to Warfarin in Rattus norvegicns. Nature, 224, 284–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. GREGORY, P. W. and BLUNN, C. T. (1936). Curly2, a recent dominant mutation in the Norway rat. J. Hered., 27, 38–40.Google Scholar
  52. GRUNEBERG, H. (1939). The linkage relations of a new lethal gene in the rat (Rattus norvegicns). Genetics, 24, 732–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. HANSON, F. B. and STEWART, D. R. (1923). A study of albino rats carrying factors for agouti and the hooded pattern. Wash. Univ. Stud., 11, 71–88.Google Scholar
  54. HARRIS, J. M., KALMUS, H. and WEST, C. B. (1963). Genetical control of the anaphylactoid reaction in rats. Genet. Res., 4, 346–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. HONDA, T. (1964). Chromosomes of the regenerating rat liver after partial hepatectomy. Jap. J. Genet., 36, 69–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. HUNGERFORD, D. A. and NOWELL, P. C. (1963). Sex chromosome polymorphism and the normal karyotype in three strains of the laboratory rat. J. Morph., 113, 275–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. IBSEN, H. L. (1920). Linkage in rats. Amer. Nat., 54, 61–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. KING, H. D. and CASTLE, W. E. (1935). Linkage studies of the rat (Rattus norvegicns). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 21, 390–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. KING, H. D. and CASTLE, W. E. (1937). Linkage studies of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). II. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 23, 56–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. KOLLER, P. C. and DARLINGTON, C. D. (1934). The genetical and mechanical properties of the sex chromosomes. I. Rattus norvegicus. J.Genet., 29, 159–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. LOZZIO, B. B., CHERNOFF, A. I., MACHADO, E. R. and LOZZIO, C. B. (1967). Hereditary renal disease in a mutant strain of rats. Science, 156, 1742–1744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. MAKINO, S. (1943). Studies on the murine chromosomes. III. A comparative study of chromosomes in five species of Rattus. J. Fac.Sei, Hokkaido Univ., VI, 9, 19–58.Google Scholar
  63. MAKINO, S. (1957). The chromosome cytology of the ascites tumours of rats, with special reference to the concept of the stemline cell. Inter.Rev. Cytol., 6, 25–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. MAKINO, S. and HSU, T. C. (1954). Mammalian chromosomes in vitro. V. The somatic complement of the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus.Cytologia, 19, 23–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. MAKINO, S. and SASAKI, M. (1958). Cytological studies of tumors. XXI. A comparative ideogram study of the Yoshida sarcoma and its sublime derivatives. J. Nat. Cancer Inst, 20, 465–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. MATTHEY, R. (1957). Les bases cytologiques de l’hérédité “relativement” liée au sexe chez les mammifères. Experientia, 13, 341–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. MITCHELL, A. L. (1935). Inheritance and linkage relations of kinky coat, a new mutation in the Norway Rat. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 21, 453–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. MITTWOCH, U. (1970). How does the Y chromosome affect gonadal differentiation? Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, B, 259, 113–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. NOWELL, P. C., FERRY, F. and HUNGERFORD, D. A. (1963). The chromosomes of primary granulocytic leukemia (chloroleukemia) in the rat. J. Nat. Cancer Inst, 30, 687–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. OHNO, S., KAPLAN, W. D. and KINOSITA, E. (1957). Conjugation of the heteropycnotic X and Y chromosomes of the rat spermatocyte. Exp.Cell Res., 12, 395–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. OHNO, S., KAPLAN, W. D. and KINOSITA, R. (1958). A photographic representation of mitosis and meiosis in the male of Rattus norvegicus.Cytologia, 23, 422–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. OHNO, S., KAPLAN, W. D. and KINOSITA, R. (1959). The centromeric and nucleolus-associated heterochromatin of Rattus norvegicus. Exp.Cell Res., 16, 348–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. OHNO, S. and KINOSITA, R. (1955). The primary and secondary constrictions on the chromosomes of the rat lymphoblast. Exp. CellRes., 8, 558–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. OWEN, R. D. (1962). Earlier studies of blood groups in the rat. Ann. N. Y.Acad. Sci., 97, 37–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. PALM, J. (1962). Current status of blood groups in rats. Annals N.Y.Acad. Sci., 97, 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. PALM, J. (1964). Serological detection of histocompatibility antigens in two strains of rats. Transplantation, 2, 603–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. PALM, J. (1971). (Personal Communication).Google Scholar
  78. PALM, J. and BLACK, G. (1971). Interrelations of inbred rat strains with respect to Ag-B and non-Ag-B antigens. Transplantation, 11, 184–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. PINCUS, G. (1927). A comparative study of the chromosomes of the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus). J.Morph. Physiol., 44, 515–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. REES, E. D., SHUCK, A. E., CHRISTIAN, J. C. and PUGH, J. R. (1968). Karyotypes of rats from strains of different susceptibility to mammary cancer induction. Cancer Res., 28, 823–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. ROBERTS, E. (1926). Further data on inheritance of hypotrichosis in rats.Anat. Rec., 14, 172.Google Scholar
  82. ROBERTS, E. and QUISENBERG, J. H. (1936). Linkage studies in the x2X.Amer. Nat., 70, 395–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. ROBERTS, E., QUISENBERG, J. H. and THOMAS, L. C. (1940). Hereditary hypotrichosis in the rat. J. Invest. Dermatol., 3, 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. ROBINSON, R. (1960). A review of independent and linked segregation in the Norway rat. J. Genet, 57, 173–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. ROBINSON, R. (1965). Genetics of the Norway rat. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  86. STARK, O., KREN, V., FRENZL, B. and BRDICKA, R. (1968). The main histocompatibility system of the rat. In Dausset, J., Hamburger, J., and Mathe, G. (Editors). Advances in transplantation. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  87. STARK, O., KREN, V., FRENZL, B. and KRSIAKOVA, M. (1969). Independent segregation of RtH-1 alleles and coat colour genes in the rat. Folia Biol. (Praha), 15, 470–473.Google Scholar
  88. TAGAKI, N. and MARINO, S. (1966). An autoradiographic study of the chromosomes of the rat, with special regard to the sex chromosomes. Chromosoma, 18, 359–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. TANAKA, T. and KANO, K. (1956). On the somatic chromosomes of rats. Proc. Inter. Genet. Symp., 1956, 196–201.Google Scholar
  90. TUO, J. H. and LEVAN, A. (1956a). Comparative idiogram analysis of the rat and the Yosida rat sarcoma. Hereditas, 42, 218–234.Google Scholar
  91. TUO, J. H. and LEVAN, A. (1956b). Note on the sex chromosomes of the rat during meiosis. Anal. Estac. Exp. Aula Sci., 4, 173–184.Google Scholar
  92. TOBIAS, P. V. (1947). The characterisation of the spermatogonia! chromosomes of the albino rat. (Rattus norvegicus albinus). S. Afr. J.Sci., 43, 312–319.Google Scholar
  93. TYLER, W. J. and CHAPMAN, A. B. (1948). Genetically reduced prolificacy in rats. Genetics, 33, 565–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. VRBA, M. (1964). Idiogram of the rat and reliability in identification of individual chromosomes. Folia Biol. (Praha), 10, 75–80.Google Scholar
  95. WHITING, P. W. and KING, H. D. (1918). Ruby-eyed dilute grey, a third allelomorph in the albino series of the rat. J. Exp. Zool., 26, 55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. WHITTINGHILL, M. (1944). Concerning linkage of waltzing in rats. Proc.Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 30, 221–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. WILDER, W., BETHKE, R. M., KICK, C. H. and SPENCER, W. P. (1932). A hairless mutation in the rat. J. Hered., 23, 480–484.Google Scholar
  98. YOSIDA, T. H. (1955a). Chromosome constitutions in male germ cells of the rat. Ann. Rep. Nat. Inst. Genet. Jap., No. 5, 18–19.Google Scholar
  99. YOSIDA, T. H. (1955b). Origin of V-shaped chromosomes occurring in tumor cells of some ascites tumors in the rat. Proc. Jap. Acad., 31, 237–242.Google Scholar
  100. YOSIDA, T. H. (1960). Genetic aspects of two color mutants of rats caught in the suburbs of Misima. Ann. Rep. Nat. Inst. Jap., 10, 29–30.Google Scholar
  101. YOSIDA, T. H. and AMANO, K. (1965). Autosomal polymorphism in laboratory bred and wild Norway rats. Chromosoma, 16, 658–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. YOSIDA, T. H., ISHIHARA, T. and ODASHIRO, T. (1960). Chromosome attraction and development of tumours. IV. Comparative ideogram analysis in cells of normal rat liver and rat ascites hepatoma No. 7974. Jap. J. Genet., 35, 35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. YOSIDA, T. H., KURITA, Y. and TANEDA, S. (1961). Genetic study of two wild mutants of rats. Bull. Exper. Anim., 10, 20–22.Google Scholar
  104. ZIDEK, Z. (1968). Karyotypes of four inbred strains of rats: AVN, BP, LEW, WP Folia Biol. (Praha), 14, 74–79.Google Scholar
  105. ZIEVERINK, W. D. and MOLONEY, W. C. (1965). Use of the Y chromosome in the Wistar/Furth rat as a cellular marker. Proc. Soc.Exp. Biol. Med., 119, 370–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roy Robinson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations