Organelles in Space and Time

  • Robert A. Reid
  • Rachel M. Leech
Part of the Tertiary Level Biology book series (TLB)


The purpose of this chapter is to outline some examples of how the division of labour associated with cell compartmentation is integrated, and to consider ideas on how the eukaryotic cell may have arisen. The interdependence of processes in different cell compartments has been recognized for many years: inhibition of DNA synthesis and transcription in the nucleus quickly stops protein synthesis in the cytoplasm, leading to breakdown of cell structure and death. If photosynthesis in green cells is stopped, neither the units for biosynthesis nor the substrates for respiration in the mitochondria are produced and the cells degenerate. Addition of uncouplers or inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation to animal cells results in insufficient ATP for active transport, biosynthesis and electrical or motor activity, with predictable results. Insult to lysosomes releases acid hydrolases that degrade other cell constituents. From recognizing the basic facts of interdependence of compartments we have moved in recent years to some understanding of their integration and control.


Starch Synthesis Green Cell Chloroplast Envelope NADH Ratio Shuttle System 
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Further Reading

  1. Heber, U. (1974) Metabolite exchange between chloroplasts and cytoplasm. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 25, 393–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Heldt, H. W., Chon, C. J., Maronde, D., Herold, A., Stankovic, Z. S., Walker, D. A., Kraminer, A., Kirk, M. R., & Heber, U. (1977) Role of Orthophosphate and other factors in the regulation of starch formation in leaves and isolated chloroplasts. Plant Physiol. 59, 1146–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Heldt, H. W., Fliege, R., Lehner, K., Milovancev, M. & Werdan, K. (1974) Metabolite movement and CO2 fixation in spinach chloroplasts. In Proc. IIIrd Int. Cong, on Photosynthesis, pp. 1369–1380 (ed. M. Avron), Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  4. Krause, G. H. & Heber, U. (1976) Energetics of intact chloroplasts. In The Intact Chloroplast pp. 171–214 (ed. J. Barber). Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press.Google Scholar
  5. Kung, S. (1977) The expression of chloroplast genomes in higher plants. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 28, 401–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Margulis, L. (1975) Symbiotic theory for the origin ofeukaryotic organelles: criteria for proof. In Symbiosis (eds. Jennings, D. H. & Lee,D. L.), SEB Symposium 29, 21–38.Google Scholar
  7. Newsholme, E. A. & Start, C. (1973) Regulation in Metabolism. Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  8. Walker, D. A. (1916) CO2 fixation by intact chloroplasts: photosynthetic induction and its relation to transport phenomena and control mechanisms. In The Intact Chloroplast, pp. 235–278 (ed. J. Barber). Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press.Google Scholar
  9. Werdan, K., Heldt, H. W. & Milanovancev, M. (1975) The role of pH in the regulation of CO2 fixation in the chloroplast stroma. Studies in CO2 fixation in light and dark. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 396, 276–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Literature Cited

  1. Broda, E. (1975) The Evolution of the Bioenergetic Processes. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  2. Fuge, H. (1977) Ultrastructure of the mitotic spindles. Int. Rev. Cytol. Suppl. 6, 1–52.Google Scholar
  3. Kubai, D. F. (1975) The evolution of the mitotic spindle. Int. Rev. Cytol. 43, 167–CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kung, S. D. & Rhodes, P. R. (1978) Interaction of chloroplast and nuclear genomes in regulating RuBP carboxylase activity. In Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilation, pp. 307–324 (eds. H. W. Siegelman & G. Hind) Plenum Press, New York, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© R. A. Reid and R. M. Leech 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Reid
    • 1
  • Rachel M. Leech
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of YorkEngland

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