Organelles in Space and Time
The purpose of this chapter is to outline some examples of how the division of labour associated with cell compartmentation is integrated, and to consider ideas on how the eukaryotic cell may have arisen. The interdependence of processes in different cell compartments has been recognized for many years: inhibition of DNA synthesis and transcription in the nucleus quickly stops protein synthesis in the cytoplasm, leading to breakdown of cell structure and death. If photosynthesis in green cells is stopped, neither the units for biosynthesis nor the substrates for respiration in the mitochondria are produced and the cells degenerate. Addition of uncouplers or inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation to animal cells results in insufficient ATP for active transport, biosynthesis and electrical or motor activity, with predictable results. Insult to lysosomes releases acid hydrolases that degrade other cell constituents. From recognizing the basic facts of interdependence of compartments we have moved in recent years to some understanding of their integration and control.
KeywordsStarch Synthesis Green Cell Chloroplast Envelope NADH Ratio Shuttle System
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