Saliva as a Monitoring Medium for Chemicals

  • H. N. Nigg
  • S. E. Wade
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 129)


The design of methods used for monitoring pesticide exposure in humans is driven by the goals of the monitoring program. Simple confirmation of exposure normally uses urine monitoring and urine monitoring has also been employed to estimate the internal pesticide dose in humans. The difficulty of using urine analyses to estimate internal pesticide dose has been reviewed (Nigg and Stamper 1989).


Salivary Cortisol Salivary Flow Salivary Secretion Human Saliva Internal Dose 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alozie SO, Sharma RP, Salunkhe DK (1978) Inhibition of rat cholinesterase isoenzymes in vitroand in vivoby the potato alkaloid, a-chaconine. J Fd Biochem 2: 259–276.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson JC (1991) Reply to the editor: Lysozyme concentration in saliva of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome. J Rheumatol 18 (1): 150.Google Scholar
  3. Avgerinos A, Malamataris S (1991) Rapid determination of carbamazepine in human plasma and saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Lett 24 (5): 809–815.Google Scholar
  4. Bardy AH, Seppälä T, Salokorpi T, Granström M-L, Santavuori P (1991) Monitoring of concentrations of clobazam and norclobazam in serum and saliva of children with epilepsy. Brain and Dev 13: 174–179.Google Scholar
  5. Baxendale PM, Jacobs HS, James VHT (1983) Plasma and salivary androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone in women with hyperandrogenism. Clin Endocr 18: 447457.Google Scholar
  6. Beck ML, Sinor LT, Rachel JM, Plapp FV (1985) Solid-phase ABO blood grouping using saliva. Med Lab Sci 42: 86–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ben-Aryeh H, Malberger E, Gutman D, Szargel R, Anavi Y (1976) Salivary IgA and serum IgG and IgA in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Oral Surg 42: 746–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ben-Aryeh H, Bergman S, Gutman D, Barzilai B, Hammerman H, Szargel R (1977) Salivary levels of calcium and potassium as indicators of digitalis toxicity. Chest 72 (1): 131–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ben-Aryeh H, Gutman D, Szargel R (1978a) Salivary sodium concentration of digitalized patients. J Oral Med 33 (3): 90–93.Google Scholar
  10. Ben-Aryeh H, Nahir M, Scharf Y, Gutman D, Laufer D, Szargel R (1978b) Sialochemistry of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Oral Surg 45: 63–70.Google Scholar
  11. Ben-Aryeh H, Gutman D (1977) Saliva in diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Israel J Dent Med 26 (2): 5–9.Google Scholar
  12. Ben-Aryeh H, Greif Z, Szargel R, Gutman D, Bendezly A (1979) Effect of digitalis on salivary electrolytes of infants. J Pediatr 95 (6): 1081–1082.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ben-Aryeh H, Gutman D (1979) Saliva for biological monitoring. In: Berlin A, Wolff AH, Hasegawa Y (eds) The use of biological specimens for the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants, Proc Int Workshop at Luxembourg, April 18–22, 1977. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague/Boston/London, pp 65–69.Google Scholar
  14. Ben-Aryeh H, Gutman D (1981) Effects of drugs on salivary secretion and composition. Israel J Dent Med 29 (1–2): 7–11.Google Scholar
  15. Ben-Aryeh, H, Szargel R, Gutman D (1983) Salivary IgA in Sjögren patients. Int J Oral Surg 12: 120–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ben-Aryeh H, Miron D, Szargel R, Gutman D (1984) Whole-saliva secretion rates in old and young healthy subjects. J Dent Res 63 (9): 1147–1148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Benkirane S, Nicolas A, Galteau M-M, Siest G (1991) Highly sensitive immunoassays for the determination of cotinine in serum and saliva. Comparison between RIA and an avidin-biotin ELISA. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 29(6): 405410.Google Scholar
  18. Bolufer P, Gandia A, Rodriguez A, Antonio P (1989) Salivary corticosteroids in the study of adrenal function. Clin Chim Acta 183: 217–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Borzelleca JF, Skalsky HL (1980) The excretion of pesticides in saliva and its value in assessing exposure. J Environ Sci Hlth B15 (6): 843–866.Google Scholar
  20. Brooks FS, Brooks RV (1984) Cortisol and cortisone in saliva. In: Read GF, RiadFahny D, Walker GF, Griffiths K (eds) Immunoassay of steroids in saliva. Alpha Omega Publ., Cardiff, England, pp 322–326.Google Scholar
  21. Chakraborty J, Hayes M, English J, Baylis M, Marks V (1981) Prednisolone concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 19: 79–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Christiansen KH (1991) Serum and saliva sex hormone levels in !Kung San men. Am J Phys Anthropol 86: 37–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ciba-Geigy (1981) Saliva. In: Lentner C, Lentner C; Wink A (eds) Ciba-Geigy tables. Medical Educ Div, Ciba-Geigy Corp, West Caldwell, NJ, pp 114–122.Google Scholar
  24. Cipriani R, Ruzza G, Foresta C, Veller Fornasa C, Peserico A (1983) Sex hormone-binding globulin and saliva testosterone levels in men with androgenetic alopecia. Br J Dermatol 109: 249–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cole DEC, Landry DA (1985) Determination of inorganic sulfate in human saliva and sweat by controlled-flow anion chromatography. J Chromatogr 337: 267–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Crawford JM, Taubman MA, Smith DJ (1975) Minor salivary glands as a major secretory source of secretory immunoglobulin A in the human oral cavity. Science 190: 1206–1209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dabbs JM Jr (1991) Salivary testosterone measurements: Collecting, storing, and mailing saliva samples. Physiol Behav 49: 815–817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Darne J, McGarrigle HHG, Lachelin GCL (1987a) Saliva oestriol, oestradiol, oestrone and progesterone levels in pregnancy: Spontaneous labour at term is preceded by a rise in the saliva oestriol:progesterone ratio. Br J Obstet Gynecol 94: 227–235.Google Scholar
  29. Darne J, McGarrigle HHG, Lachelin GCL (1987b) Increased saliva oestriol to progesterone ratio before idiopathic preterm delivery: A possible predictor for pre-term labour? Br Med J 294: 270–272.Google Scholar
  30. Dickinson RG, Hooper WD, King AR, Eadie MJ (1985) Fallacious results from measuring salivary carbamazepine concentrations. Ther Drug Monit 7: 41–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dunn JF, Nisula BC, Rodbard D (1981) Transport of steroid hormones: binding of 21 endogenous steroids to both testosterone-binding globulin and corticosteroidbinding globulin in human plasma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 53: 58–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Evans JJ, Wilkinson AR, Aickin DR (1984) Salivary estriol concentrations during normal pregnancies, and a comparison with plasma estriol. Clin Chem 30(1): 120121.Google Scholar
  33. Ferguson DB (1979) The relative ability of different acids to stimulate salivary flow. J Dent Res April, abstract no. 127. 58: 1252.Google Scholar
  34. Ferguson DB, Botchway CA (1980) A comparison of circadian variation in the flow rate and composition of stimulated human parotid, submandibular and whole salivas from the same individuals. Arch Oral Biol 25: 559–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Fischer-Rasmussen W, Gabrielsen MV, Wisborg T (1981) Relation of estriol in saliva to serum estriol during normal pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 60: 417–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Geldmacher-von Mallinckrodt M, Diepgen TL (1988) The human serum paraoxonase-polymorphism and specificity. Toxicol Environ Chem 18: 79–196.Google Scholar
  37. Gervais L, Lacasse Y, Brodeur J, P’an A (1981) Presence of cadmium in the saliva of adult male workers. Toxicol Lett 8: 63–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gross SJ, Worthy TE, Nerder L, Zimmermann EG, Soares JR, Lomax P (1985) Detection of recent cannabis use by saliva 6,9-THC radioimmunoassay. J Anal Toxicol 9: 1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Guechot J, Fiet J, Passa P, Villette JM, Gourmel B, Tabuteau F, Cathelineau G, Dreux C (1982) Physiological and pathological variations in saliva cortisol. Hormone Res 16: 357–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gutman D, Ben-Aryeh H (1974) The influence of age on salivary content and rate of flow. Int J Oral Surg 3: 314–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Haeckel R (1990) Relationship between intraindividual variation of the saliva plasma and of the arteriovenous concentration ratio as demonstrated by the administration of caffeine. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 28: 279–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hallgren A, Oliveby A, Twetman S (1990) Salivary fluoride concentrations in children with glass ionomer cemented orthodontic appliances. Caries Res 24: 239241.Google Scholar
  43. Hebel P, Haeckel R (1988) Method of extracting human saliva. U.S. Patent 4, 774–962.Google Scholar
  44. Hené RJ, Kater L (1991) Reply to the editor: Lysozyme concentration in saliva of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome. J Rheumatol 18 (1): 150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoshika Y (1981) Gas chromatographic determination of indoles in human mouth and saliva using a nameless alkali sensitized detector (nitrogen/phosphorousspecific detector, NPD). J Chromatogr Sci 19: 444–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Idowu OR, Caddy B (1982) A review of the use of saliva in the forensic detection of drugs and other chemicals. J Forensic Sci Soc 22: 123–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Jarczyk L, Maier H, Born IA, Scherer G, Adlkofer F (1991) Concentration of nicotine in serum and saliva after intravenous infusion of the alkaloid and after smoking. In: Adlkofer F, Thurau K (eds) Effects of nicotine on biological systems. Birkhäuser Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp 51–55.Google Scholar
  48. Jarvis MJ, McNeill AD, Bryant A, Russell MAH (1991) Factors determining exposure to passive smoking in young adults living at home: Quantitative analysis using saliva cotinine concentrations. Int J Epidemiol 20 (1): 126–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Jemmott JB III, Borysenko JZ, Borysenko M, McClelland DC, Chapman R, Meyer D, Benson H (1983) Academic stress, power motivation, and decrease in secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A. The Lancet, June 25. 1 (8339): 1400–1402.Google Scholar
  50. Joshi UM, Sankolli GM, Rajani U (1976) Secretion of oestrogens into saliva during pregnancy in the human. Clin Chim Acta 73: 565–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kahn J-P, Rubinow DR, Davis CL, Kling M, Post RM (1988) Salivary cortisol: A practical method for evaluation of adrenal function. Biol Psych 23: 335–349.Google Scholar
  52. Katagiri Y, Nagasako S, Hayashibara M, Iwamoto K (1991) Salivary excretion of mexiletine in normal healthy volunteers. J Pharm Pharmacol 43: 513–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kawashima H, Bandyopadhyay S, Rutstein R, Plotkin SA (1991) Excretion of human immunodeficiency type 1 in the throat but not in urine by infected children. J Pediatr 118 (1): 80–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kirschbaum C, Hellhammer DH (1989) Salivary cortisol in psychobiological research: An overview. Neuropsychobiology 22: 150–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kristensen O, Larsen HF (1980) Value of saliva samples in monitoring carbama- zepine concentrations in epileptic patients. Acta Neurol Scand 61: 344–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Krivoy N, Rogin N, Greif Z, Ben-Aryeh H, Gutman D, Alroy G (1981) Relationship between digoxin concentration in serum and saliva in infants. J Pediatr 99 (5): 810–811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. La Du BN, Bartels CF, Nogueira CP, Hajra A, Lightstone H, Van Der Spek A, Lockridge O (1990) Phenotypic and molecular biological analysis of human butyrylcholinesterase variants. Clin Biochem 23: 423–431.Google Scholar
  58. Laakso M-L, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Alila A, Stenberg D, Johansson G (1990) Correlation between salivary and serum melatonin: Dependence on serum melatonin levels. J Pineal Res 9: 39–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lechner W, Marth Ch, Daxenbichler G (1985) Correlation of oestriol levels in saliva, plasma and urine of pregnant women. Acta Endocr 109: 266–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lechner W, Heim K, Zech J, Daxenbichler G, Marth C (1987) The relation between saliva estriol levels in pregnancy and infant birth weight. Arch Gynecol Obstet 241: 9–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Levy RH, Schmidt D (1985) Utility of free level monitoring of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 26: 199–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lewis PR, Galvin PM, Short RV (1987) Salivary oestriol and progesterone concentrations in women during late pregnancy, parturition and the puerperium. J Endocr 115: 177–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lockridge 0 (1990) Genetic variants of human serum cholinesterase influence metabolism of the muscle relaxant succinylcholine. Pharmacol Ther 47: 35–60.Google Scholar
  64. Loguercio C, Costato D, Del Vecchio Blanco C (1991) Inhibitory effect of caerulein on salivary secretion in man. Digestion 48: 128–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Luoma PV, Heikkinen JE, Ylöstalo PR (1982) Phenobarbital pharmacokinetics and salivary and serum concentrations in pregnancy. Ther Drug Monit 4: 65–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Matthews RW, Bhoola KD, Rasker JJ, Jayson MIV (1985) Salivary secretion and connective tissue disease in man. Ann Rheum Dis 44: 20–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. McCarron MM, Walberg CB, Soares JR, Gross SJ, Baselt RC (1984) Detection of phencyclidine usage by radioimmunoassay of saliva. J Analyt Toxicol 8: 197–201.Google Scholar
  68. McGarrigle HHG, Lachelin GCL (1984) Increasing saliva (free) oestriol to progesterone ratio in late pregnancy: A role for oestriol in initiating spontaneous labour in man? Br Med J 289: 457–459.Google Scholar
  69. Menkes DB, Howard RC, Spears GFS, Cairns ER (1991) Salivary THC following cannabis smoking correlates with subjective intoxication and heart rate. Psycho-pharmacology 103: 277–279.Google Scholar
  70. Moncrieff J (1991) Determination of theophylline in serum and saliva in the presence of caffeine and its metabolites. J Chromatogr 568: 177–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Müller F, Froland SS, Hvatum M, Radl J, Brandtzaeg P (1991) Both IgA subclasses are reduced in parotid saliva from patients with AIDS. Clin Exp Immunol 83: 203–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Nigg HN, Stamper JH (1989) Biological monitoring for pesticide dose determination. In: Wang RGM, Franklin CA, Honeycutt RC, Reinert JC (eds) Biological monitoring for pesticide exposure—measurement, estimation, and risk reduction. ACS Symp Series 382, ACS, Washington, DC, pp 6–27.Google Scholar
  73. Nowicki P, Sexton M, Hebel JR (1984) Salivary thiocyanate in pregnant smokers: A comparison of two collection methods. Addict Behav 9: 33–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Omokhodion FO, Crockford GW (1991) Lead in sweat and its relationship to salivary and urinary levels in normal healthy subjects. Sci Total Environ 103: 113–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. P’an AYS (1981) Lead levels in saliva and in blood. J Toxicol Environ Hlth 7: 273–280.Google Scholar
  76. Paxton JW, Aman MG, Werry JS (1983) Fluctuations in salivary carbamazepine and carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide concentrations during the day in epileptic children. Epilepsia 24: 716–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Potter EV, Vincente JB, Mayon-White RT, Shaughnessy MA, Poon-King T, Earle DP (1982) Skin infections and immunoglobulin A in serum, sweat, and saliva of patients recovered from poststreptococcal acute glomerulonephritis or acute rheumatic fever and their siblings. Am J Epidem 115 (6): 951–959.Google Scholar
  78. Putz Z, Vanuga A, Velemínskÿ J (1985) Radioimmunoassay of thyroxine in saliva. Exp Clin Endocr 85 (2): 199–203.Google Scholar
  79. Renz H, Vestner R, Petzoldt S, Brehler C, Prinz H, Rieger CHL (1990) Elevated concentrations of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A anti-cow’s milk protein in newborns at risk of allergy. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 92: 247–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Riad-Fahmy D, Read GF, Walker RF, Griffiths K (1982) Steroids in saliva for assessing endocrine function. Endocr Rev 3 (4): 367–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Rolinski B, Wintergerst U, Matuschke A, Füessl H, Goebel FD, Roscher AA, Belohradsky BH (1991) Evaluation of saliva as a specimen for monitoring zidovudine therapy in HIV-infected patients. AIDS 5 (7): 885–888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Schramm W, Smith RH, Craig PA, Paek SH, Kuo HH (1990) Determination of free progesterone in an ultrafiltrate of saliva collected in situ. Clin Chem 36: 1488–1493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Scott NR, Chakraborty J, Marks V (1984) Determination of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine in serum and saliva using high-performance liquid chromatography. Ann Clin Biochem 21: 120–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Ship, JA, Patton LL, Tylenda CA (1991) An assessment of salivary function in healthy premenopausal and postmenopausal females. J Gerontol: Med Sci 46 (1): M11 - M15.Google Scholar
  85. Skalsky HL, Lane RW, Borzelleca J (1979) Excretion of carbaryl into saliva of the rat and its effect on cholinesterase. In: Deichmann WB (ed) Toxicology and occupational medicine. Proc 10th Inter-American Conf Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, Key Biscayne (Miami), FL, October 22–25, 1978. Elsevier, New York, pp 349–358.Google Scholar
  86. Spencer EK, Campbell M, Adams P, Perry R, Choroco MC, Padron-Gayol M, Small AM (1990) Saliva and serum lithium monitoring in hospitalized children. Psychopharmacol Bull 26 (2): 239–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Swinkels LMJW, Ross HA, Smals AGH, Benraad ThJ (1990) Concentrations of total and free dehydroepiandrosterone in plasma and dehydroepiandrosterone in saliva of normal and hirsute women under basal conditions and during administration of dexamethasone/synthetic corticotropin. Clin Chem 36 (12): 2042–2046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Teeuwen HWA, Elbers EL, van Rossum JM (1991) Rapid and sensitive gas-chromatographic determination of caffeine in blood plasma, saliva, and xanthine beverages. Mol Biol Rep 15: 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Umeda T, Hiramatsu R, Iwaoka T, Shimada T, Miura F, Sato T (1981) Use of saliva for monitoring unbound free cortisol levels in serum. Clin Chim Acta 110: 245–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Vining RF, McGinley RA (1986) Hormones in saliva. CRC Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 23 (2): 95–146.Google Scholar
  91. Vining RF, McGinley RA (1987) The measurement of hormones in saliva: Possibilities and pitfalls. J Steroid Biochem 27: 81–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Wade SE, Haegele AD (1991) Time-integrated measurement of corticosteroids in human saliva by oral diffusion sink technology. Clin Chem 37 (7): 1166–1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Wade SE, Haegele AD (1991) Time-integrated measurement of corticosteroids in human saliva by oral diffusion sink technology. Clin Chem 37 (7): 1166–1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Wagner SA, Slavik M (1984) An individualized plastic intraoral device for the collection of human parotid saliva. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 22 (5): 236–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Walker RF, Read GF, Riad-Fahmy D (1979) Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in saliva: Application to the assessment of ovarian function. Clin Chem 25 (12): 2030–2033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Walker S, Mustafa A, Walker RF, Riad-Fahmy D (1981) The role of salivary pro- gesterone in studies of infertile women. Br J Obstet Gynecol 88: 1009–1015.Google Scholar
  97. Walker RF, Read GF, Wilson DW, Riad-Fahmy D, Griffiths K (1990) Chrono-biology in laboratory medicine: Principles and clinical applications illustrated from measurements of neutral steroids in saliva. In: Chronobiology: Its role in clinical medicine, general biology, and agriculture, Part A. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 105–117.Google Scholar
  98. Wender M, Przybylski Z, Stawarz M, Chmielewska U (1981) Salivary secretion of blood group substances in multiple sclerosis patients. Eur Neurol 20: 52–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Wenke G, Brunnemann KD, Hoffmann D, Bhide SV (1984) A study of betel quid carcinogenesis. IV. Analysis of the saliva of betel chewers: A preliminary report. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 108: 110–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Widerström L, Bratthall D (1984) Increased IgA levels in saliva during pregnancy. Scand J Dent Res 92: 33–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Worthman CM, Stallings JF, Hofman LF (1990) Sensitive salivary estradiol assay for monitoring ovarian function. Clin Chem 36 (10): 1769–1773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Wotman S, Bigger JT Jr, Mandel ID, Bartelstone HJ (1971) Salivary electrolytes in the detection of digitalis toxicity. New England J Med 285 (16): 871–876.Google Scholar
  103. Young JA, Schneyer CA (1981) Composition of saliva in mammalia. AJEBAK 59 (1): 1–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Yu J-H, Burns SM, Schneyer CA (1983) Salivary secretion induced by substance P (41671). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 173: 467–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Zaki K, El Hak R, Amer W, Saleh F, El Faras A, Ragab L, Nour H (1984) Salivary female sex hormone levels and gingivitis in pregnancy. Biomedica Biochimica Acta 43 (6): 749–754.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Zerfowski M, Schlegel P, Maier H (1991) Pharmacokinetics of cefotiam in plasma, parotid saliva and mixed saliva in healthy adults. Arzneim-Forsch/Drug Res 41(1)3: 257–259.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. N. Nigg
    • 1
  • S. E. Wade
    • 2
  1. 1.Citrus Research and Education CenterUniversity of Florida, IFASLake AlfredUSA
  2. 2.Fb 1 PsychologieUniversity of TrierTrierGermany

Personalised recommendations