Advertisement

Photoperiodic Control of Reproduction in Male Hamsters: Role of FSH in Early Stages of Photostimulation

  • Fred W. Turek
  • Neena B. Schwartz
Part of the Serono Symposia USA book series (SERONOSYMP)

Abstract

Reproductive activity for most birds and mammals inhabiting the temperate zones of the world is confined to a period of the year such that the birth of the young occurs when the probability of survival for both adults and offspring is maximum. While various environmental signals are used to synchronize the mating season to the appropriate season of the year (1), a primary factor that is the overriding one in many species for regulating various stages of the reproductive cycle is the annual change in day length (2, 3). For many species with a short gestation period (e.g., hamsters, voles, ferrets, and most temperate zone birds), reproductive activity takes place in association with the lengthening or long days of spring and summer; while for species with a long-duration gestation period (e.g., horses, sheep, and deer), mating activity occurs in association with the shortening or short days of fall and winter.

Keywords

Circadian Clock Pineal Gland Photoperiodic Response Follicle Stimulate Hormone Level Photoperiodic Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bronson F. Seasonal regulation of reproduction in mammals. In: Knobil E, Neill J, eds. The physiology of reproduction, vol 2. New York: Raven Press, 1988: 1831–71.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nelson RJ, Badura LL, Goldman BD. Mechanisms of seasonal cycles of behavior. Annu Rev Psychol 1990; 41: 81–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Turek FW, Campbell CS. Photoperiodic regulation of neuroendocrine-gonadal activity. Biol Reprod 1979; 20: 32–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Watson-Whitmyre M, Stetson M. Reproductive refractoriness in hamsters: environmental and endocrine etiologies. In: Stetson M, ed. Processing of environmental information in vertebrates. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988: 219–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stetson M. Termination of photorefractoriness in golden hamsters—photoperiodic requirements. J Exp Zool 1977; 202: 81–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gwinner E. Circannual rhythms. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Karsch FJ, Robinson JE, Woodfill CJI, Brown MB. Circannual cycles of luteinizing hormone and prolactin secretion in ewes during prolonged exposure to a fixed photoperiod: evidence for an endogenous reproductive rhythm. Biol Reprod 1989; 41: 1034–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Legan SJ, Karsch FJ. Importance of retinal photoreceptors to the photoperiodic control of seasonal breeding in the ewe. Biol Reprod 1983; 29: 316–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Underwood H, Groos G. Vertebrate circadian rhythms: retinal and extraretinal photoreception. Experientia 1982; 38: 1013–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Milette JJ, Hotz MM, Takahashi JS, Turek FW. Characterization of the wavelength of light necessary for initiation of neuroendocrine-gonadal activity in male Djungarian hamsters [Abstract]. Biol Reprod 1987; 36: 110.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hotz MM, Milette JJ, Takahashi JS, Turek FW. Spectral sensitivity of the circadian clock’s response to light in Djungarian hamsters [Abstract]. Soc Res Biol Rhythms 1990; 2: 49.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pickard G. Morphological characteristics of retinal ganglion cells projecting to the suprachiasmatic nucleus: a horseradish peroxidase study. Brain Res 1980; 183: 458–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pickard G, Friauf E. Morphological features of lucifer yellow (LY) filled retinal ganglion cells innervating the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) [Abstract]. Neurosci Soc 1990; 16: 602.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moore RY, Lenn NJ. A retinohypothalamic projection in the rat. J Comp Neurol 1972; 146: 1–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Moore RY, Eichler VB. Loss of a circadian adrenal corticosterone rhythm following suprachiasmatic lesions in the rat. Brain Res 1972; 42: 201–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stephan FK, Zucker I. Circadian rhythms in drinking behavior and locomotor activity of rats are eliminated by hypothalamic lesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1972; 69: 1583–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Morin LP, Fitzgerald KM, Rusak B, Zucker I. Circadian organization and neural mediation of hamster reproductive rhythms. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1977; 2: 73–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Turek F, Van Cauter E. Rhythms in reproduction. In: Knobil E, Neill J, eds. The physiology of reproduction, vol 2. New York: Raven Press, 1988: 1789–1830.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Underwood H, Goldman BD. Vertebrate circadian and photoperiodic systems: role of the pineal gland and melatonin. J Biol Rhythms 1987; 2: 279–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stetson M, Watson-Whitmyre M. Nucleus suprachiasmaticus: the biological clock in the hamster. Science 1976; 191: 197–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hoffmann K. The role of the pineal gland in the photoperiodic control of seasonal cycles in hamsters. In: Follett BK, Follett DE, eds. Biological clocks in seasonal reproductive cycles. Bristol: Wright, 1981: 237–50.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bartness TJ, Goldman BD. Mammalian pineal melatonin: a clock for all seasons. Experientia 1989; 45: 939–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reiter RJ. Circannual reproductive rhythms in mammals related to photoperiod and pineal function: a review. Chronobiologia 1974; 1: 365–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Smale L, Cassone VM, Moore RY, Morin LP. Paraventricular nucleus projections mediating pineal melatonin and gonadal responses to photoperiod in the hamster. Brain Res Bull 1989; 22: 263–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Youngstrom TG, Weiss ML, Nunez AA. A retinal projection to the para-ventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Brain Res Bull 1987; 19: 747–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wayne NL, Malpaux B, Karsch RJ. How does melatonin code for day length in the ewe: duration of nocturnal melatonin release or coincidence of melatonin with a light-entrained sensitive period? Biol Reprod 1988; 39: 66–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bittman EL, Dempsey RJ, Karsh FJ. Nightly duration of pineal melatonin secretion determines the reproductive response to inhibitory day length in the ewe. Biol Reprod 1984; 30: 585–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reiter RJ. The melatonin message: duration versus coincidence hypotheses. Life Sci 1987; 40: 2119–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stetson M, Sarafidis E, Rollag M. Sensitivity of adult male Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) to melatonin injections throughout the day: effects on the reproductive system and the pineal. Biol Reprod 1986; 35: 618–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    de Reviers M-M, Ravault J-P, Tillet Y, Pelletier J. Melatonin binding sites in the sheep pars tuberalis. Neurosci Lett 1989; 100: 89–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Morgan PJ, Williams LM, Davidson G, Lawson W, Howell E. Melatonin receptors on ovine pars tuberalis: characterization and autoradiographic localization. J Neuroendocrinol 1989; 1: 1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Weaver DR, Carlson LL, Reppert SM. Melatonin receptors and signal transduction in melatonin-sensitive and melatonin-insensitive populations of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). Brain Res 1990; 506: 353–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vanecek J, Pavlfk A, Illnerovâ H. Hypothalamic melatonin receptor sites revealed by autoradiography. Brain Res 1987; 435: 359–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Williams LM. Melatonin-binding sites in the rat brain and pituitary mapped by in-vitro autoradiograph. J Mol Endocrinol 1989; 3: 71–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cassone VM. Effects of melatonin on vertebrate circadian systems. TINS 1990; 13: 457–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sinha Hikim AP, Amador AG, Bartke A, Russell LD. Structure/function relationships in active and inactive hamster Leydig cells: a correlative morphometric and endocrine study. Endocrinology 1989; 125: 1844–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sinha Hikim AP, Amador AG, Klemcke HG, Bartke A, Russell LD. Correlative morphology and endocrinology of Sertoli cells in hamster testes in active and inactive states of spermatogenesis. Brain Res Bull 1989; 125: 1829–43.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Turek FW, Ellis GB. Steroid-dependent and steroid-independent aspects of the photoperiodic control of seasonal reproductive cycles in male hamsters. In: Follett BK, Follett DE, eds. Biological clocks in seasonal reproductive cycles. Bristol: Wright, 1981: 251–60.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pickard GE, Silverman AJ. Effects of photoperiod on hypothalamic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in the male hamster. J Endocrinol 1979; 83: 421–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jetton AE, Schwartz NB, Turek FW. Effects of photoperiod and melatonin on in vitro hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) release in Djungarian hamsters [Abstract]. Neurosci Soc 1990; 16: 285.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Simpson SM, Follett BK, Ellis DH. Modulation by photoperiod of gonadotropin secretion in intact and castrated Djungarian hamsters. J Reprod Fertil 1982; 66: 243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Milette JJ, Schwartz NB, Turek FW. The importance of follicle-stimulating hormone in the initiation of testicular growth in photostimulated Djungarian hamsters. Endocrinology 1988; 122: 1060–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Niklowitz P, Khan S, Bergmann M, Hoffman K, Nieschlag E. Differential effects of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone on Leydig cell function and restoration of spermatogenesis in hypophysectomized and photoinhibited Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Biol Reprod 1989; 41: 871–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Scott RS, Burger HG. Mechanism of action of inhibin. Biol Reprod 1981; 24: 541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Turek FW, Elliot JA, Alvis JD, Menaker M. Effect of prolonged exposure to nonstimulatory photoperiods on the activity of the neuroendocrine-testicular axis of golden hamsters. Biol Reprod 1975; 13: 475–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Turek FW, Alvis JD, Menaker M. Pituitary responsiveness to LRF in castrated male hamsters exposed to different photoperiodic conditions. Neuroendocrinology 1977; 24: 140–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ellis GB, Turek FW. Time course of the photoperiod-induced change in sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to testosterone feedback in castrated male hamsters. Endocrinology 1979; 104: 625–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ellis GB, Losee S, Turek FW. Prolonged exposure of castrated male hamsters to a nonstimulatory photoperiod: spontaneous change in sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to testosterone feedback. Endocrinology 1979; 104: 631–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ellis G, Turek FW. Photoperiodic regulation of serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in castrated and castrated-adrenalectomized male hamsters. Endocrinology 1980; 106: 1338–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mizunuma H, Samson WK, Lumpkin MD, Moltz JH, Fawcett CP, McCann SM. Purification of a bioactive FSH-releasing factor (FSHRF). Brain Res Bull 1983; 10: 623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Vale W, Rivier J, Vaughan J, et al. Purification and characterization of an FSH releasing protein from ovarian follicular fluid. Nature 1986; 321: 776.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Marshall JC, Dalkin AC, Goodman GT, Haisenleder, Kelch RP, Paul SJ. GnRH pulse patterns in the regulation of FSH secretion [Abstract]. Symposium on Regulation and Actions of Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Serono Symposia, USA. Evanston, 1990. (See Chapter 13, this volume.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fred W. Turek
  • Neena B. Schwartz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations