Control of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Secretion in the Male Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta)

  • Tony M. Plant
Part of the Serono Symposia USA book series (SERONOSYMP)


The major drive to pituitary gonadotropin secretion is generated by the hypothalamus and is transmitted to the gonadotrophs via the hypophysial portal circulation in the form of an intermittent discharge of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Although the morphological analysis of the network of GnRH neurons in the primate hypothalamus has received considerable attention (1), the neurobiological basis of intermittent GnRH release remains poorly understood. For the purpose of the present discussion, the neural network responsible for the generation of pulsatile GnRH secretion is viewed as a “black box” and termed the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator (2, 3). In the male rhesus monkey, the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), as well as that of luteinizing hormone (LH), appears heavily dependent upon hypothalamic input because lesions of this region of the brain that leave the vascular supply of the anterior pituitary intact reduce circulating concentrations of both gonadotropins to values that are undetectable and that fail to respond to castration (4).


Luteinizing Hormone Follicle Stimulate Hormone Luteinizing Hormone Secretion Luteinizing Hormone Release Luteinizing Hormone Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Silverman A-J. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal systems: immunocytochemistry. In: Knobil E, Neill JD, eds. The physiology of reproduction; vol 1. New York: Raven Press, 1988: 1283–1304.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Karsch FJ. Seasonal reproduction: a saga of reversible fertility. Physiologist 1980; 23: 29–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pohl CR, Knobil E. The role of the central nervous system in the control of ovarian function in higher primates. Annu Rev Physiol 1982; 44: 583–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Plant TM, Dubey AK. Evidence from the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) for the view that negative feedback control of luteinizing hormone secretion by the testis is mediated by a deceleration of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse frequency. Endocrinology 1984; 115: 2145–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Resko JA, Quadri SK, Spies HG. Negative feedback control of gonadotropins in male rhesus monkeys: effects of time after castration and interactions of testosterone and estradiol-17 p. Endocrinology 1977; 101: 215–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Plant TM, Hess DL, Hotchkiss J, Knobil E. Testosterone and the control of gonadotropin secretion in the male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Endocrinology 1978; 103: 535–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Resko JA, Jackson GL, Huckins C, Stadelman H, Spies HG. Cryptorchid rhesus macaques: long term studies on changes in gonadotropins and gonadal steroids. Endocrinology 1980; 107: 1127–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Plant TM. Effects of orchidectomy and testosterone replacement treatment on pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in the adult rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Endocrinology 1982; 110: 1905–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Plant TM. Gonadal regulation of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone release in primates. Endocr Rev 1986; 7: 75–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Caraty A, Locatelli A. Effect of time after castration on secretion of LHRH and LH in the ram. J Reprod Fertil 1988; 82: 263–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Winters SJ, Troen P. A reexamination of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in primary testicular failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983; 57: 432–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Matsumoto AM, Bremner WJ. Modulation of pulsatile gonadotropin secretion by testosterone in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984; 58: 609–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Santoro N, Filicori M, Crowley WF, Jr. Hypogonadotropic disorders in men and women: diagnosis and therapy with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Endocr Rev 1986; 7: 11–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bagatell CJ, Bremner WJ. Testosterone’s direct pituitary effect to inhibit gonadotropin secretion in men is mediated largely by aromatization to estradiol [Abstract]. In: Proc 72nd annu meet Endocr Soc. Atlanta, 1990; 365.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dubey AK, Zeleznik AJ, Plant TM. In the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), the negative feedback regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion by an action of testicular hormone directly at the level of the anterior pituitary gland cannot be accounted for by either testosterone or estradiol. Endocrinology 1987; 121: 2229–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Finkelstein J, O’Dea L, Whitcomb R, Schoenfeld D, Crowley W. Testosterone infusion suppresses LH secretion at the pituitary and hypothalamic levels in the human male [Abstract]. In: Proc 70th annu meet Endocr Soc. New Orleans, 1988; 302.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sheckter CB, Matsumoto AM, Bremner WJ. Testosterone administration inhibits gonadotropin secretion by an effect directly on the human pituitary. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1989; 68: 397–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Finkelstein J, Whitcomb R, O’Dea L, Longcope C. Testolactone prevents the pituitary hypothalamic suppressive effects of testosterone on gonadotropin secretion in men [Abstract]. In: Proc 71st annu meet Endocr Soc. Seattle, 1989; 448.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Abeyawardene SA, Plant TM. Reconciliation of the paradox that testosterone replacement prevents the postcastration hypersecretion of follicle-stimulating hormone in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with an intact central nervous system but not in hypothalamic-lesioned, gonadotropin-releasing hormone replaced animals. Biol Reprod 1989; 40: 578–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCullagh DR. Dual endocrine activity of the testes. Science 1932; 76: 19–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baker HWG, Bremner WJ, Burger HG, et al. Testicular control of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion. Recent Prog Horm Res 1976; 32: 429–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Franchimont P, Verstraelen-Proyard J, Hazee-Hagelstein MT, et al. Inhibin: from concept to reality. Vitam Horm 1979; 37: 243–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Keeping HS, Winters SJ, Attardi B, Troen P. Developmental changes in testicular inhibin and androgen-binding protein during sexual maturation in the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis. Endocrinology 1990; 126: 2858–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Abeyawardene SA, Vale WW, Marshall GR, Plant TM. Circulating inhibin a-concentrations in infant, prepubertal and adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and in juvenile males during premature initiation of puberty with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment. Endocrinology 1989; 125: 250–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fingscheidt U, Weinbauer GF, Robertson DM, deKretser DM, Nieschlag E. Radioimmunoassay of inhibin in the serum of male monkeys. J Endocrinol 1989; 122: 477–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Abeyawardene SA, Plant TM. Institution of combined treatment with testosterone and charcoal-extracted porcine follicular fluid immediately after orchi-dectomy prevents the postcastration hypersecretion of follicle-stimulating hormone in the hypothalamus lesioned rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) receiving an invariant iv gonadotropin-releasing hormone infusion. Endocrinology 1989; 124: 1310–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Plant TM. Puberty in primates. In: Knobil E, Neill JD, eds. The physiology of reproduction; vol 1. New York: Raven Press, 1988: 215–37.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Abeyawardene SA, Plant TM. Bilateral orchidectomy and concomitant testosterone replacement in the juvenile male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) receiving an invariant iv gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) infusion results, as in the hypothalamus lesioned GnRH-driven adult male, in a selective hypersecretion of follicle-stimulating hormone. Endocrinology 1989; 125: 257–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Medhamurthy R, Abeyawardene SA, Culler MD, Negro-Vilar A, Plant TM. Immunoneutralization of circulating inhibin in the hypophysiotropically clamped male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) results in a selective hypersecretion of follicle-stimulating hormone. Endocrinology 1990; 126: 2116–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Medhamurthy R, Culler MD, Gay VL, Plant TM. Inhibin regulates FSH secretion in the adult male rhesus monkey, a representative higher primate [Abstract]. In: Proc 72nd annu meet Endocr Soc. Atlanta, 1990; 215.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Culler MD, Negro-Vilar A. Passive immunoneutralization of endogenous inhibin: sex-related differences in the role of inhibin during development. Mol Cell Endocrinol 1988; 58: 263–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rivier C, Cajander S, Vaughan J, Hsueh AJW, Vale W. Age-dependent changes in physiological action, content, and immunostaining of inhibin in male rats. Endocrinology 1988; 123: 120–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Voglmayr JK, Mizumachi M, Washington DW, Chen C-LC, Bardin CW. Immunization of rams against human recombinant inhibin a-subunit delays, augments, and extends season-related increase in blood gonadotropin levels. Biol Reprod 1990; 42: 81–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    de Kretser DM, McLachlan RI, Robertson DM, Burger HG. Serum inhibin levels in normal men and men with testicular disorders. J Endocrinol 1989; 120: 517–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sugino K, Nakamura T, Takio K, et al. Inhibin alpha-subunit monomer is present in bovine follicular fluid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1989; 159: 1323–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Robertson DM, Giacometti M, Foulds LM, et al. Isolation of inhibin a-subunit precursor proteins from bovine follicular fluid. Endocrinology 1989; 125: 2141–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schneyer AL, Mason AT, Burton LE, Zienger JR, Crowley WF, Jr. Immunoreactive inhibin a-subunit in human serum: implications for radioimmunoassay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990; 70: 1208–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tony M. Plant

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations