Advertisement

Recombinant FSH and Regulation of Ovulation

  • A. Brenda Galway
  • Philip S. LaPolt
  • Irving Boime
  • Aaron J. W. Hsueh
Part of the Serono Symposia USA book series (SERONOSYMP)

Abstract

The pituitary glycoprotein hormone FSH consists of two dissimilar, noncovalently linked polypeptide chains. The α-subunit is common to all three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (FSH, LH, and TSH) and the placental-derived chorionic gonadotropin (CG). The unique β-subunit confers each molecule with its biological specificity. Although all subunits of the gonadotropins are believed to be derived from a common ancestral gene, each subunit is encoded for by a separate gene. The gene structure of the α- and β-subunits is well conserved, with the FSHβ subunit gene structure identified in 3 exons separated by 2 introns. The FSHβ gene is unique among the glycoprotein hormones in possessing a 3′-untranslated region of approximately 1 kb. The importance of this long 3′ tract is unknown, but is potentially involved in mRNA stability.

Keywords

Sialic Acid Granulosa Cell Corpus Luteum Culture Granulosa Cell Carbohydrate Side Chain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Shome B, Parlow AF. Human follicle-stimulating hormone: first proposal for the amino acid sequence of the hormone-specific, a-subunit (hFSH)..J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1974; 39: 203–5.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chappel SC, Ulloa-Aquirre A, Coutifaris C. Biosynthesis and secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone. Endocr Rev 1983; 4: 179–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hsueh MW, Bicsak TA, Jia XC, et al. Granulosa cells as hormone targets: the role of biologically active follicle-stimulating hormone in reproduction. Recent Prog Horn Res 1989; 45: 209–77.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ny T, Bjersing L, Hsueh MW, Loskutoff DJ. Cultured granulosa cells produce two plasminogen activators and an antiactivator, each regulated differently by gonadotropin. Endocrinology 1985; 116: 1666–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Galway AB, LaPolt PS, Tsafriri A, Dargan CM, Boime I, Hsueh MW. Recombinant FSH induced ovulation and tissue plasminogen activator expression in hypophysectomized rats. Endocrinology 1990.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schwartz NB. The role of FSH and LH and their antibodies on follicular growth and on ovulation. Biol Reprod 1974; 10: 236–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Laufer N, DeChemey AJ, Haseltine FP, et al. The use of high dose human menopausal gonadotropins in in vitro fertilization programs. Fertil Steril 1983; 40: 734–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jones GS, Acosta AA, Garcia JE, Bernardus RE, Rosenwak Z. The effect of follicle stimulating hormone without additional luteinizing hormone on follicle stimulation and oocyte development in normal ovulatory women. Fertil Steril 1985; 43: 696–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Keene JL, Matzuk MM, Otani T, et al. Expression of biologically active human follitropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem 1989; 264: 4769–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jia XC, Hsueh AJW. Granulosa cell aromatase bioassay (GAB) for follicle stimulating hormone: validation and application of the method. Endocrinology 1986; 119: 1578–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Morell AG, Gregoriadis G, Scheinberg IH. The role of sialic acid in determining the survival of glycoproteins in the circulation. J Biol Chem 1971; 245: 1461–7.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sairam MR, Bhargave GN. A role of glycosylation of the a-subunit in transduction of biological signal in glycoprotein hormones. Science 1985; 229: 65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sairam MR. Protein glycosylation and receptor-ligand interactions. In: Conn PM, ed. The receptors. New York: Academic Press, 1985; 2: 307–40.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Matzuk MM, Spangler MM, Camel M, Suganuma N, Boime I. Mutagenesis and chimeric genes define determinants in the a-subunits of human chorionic gonadotropin and lutropin for secretion and assembly. Biol Reprod 1989.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Briles EB, Li E, Kornfeld S. Isolation of wheat germ agglutimin-resistant clones of Chinese hamster ovary cells deficient in membrane sialic acid and galactose. J Biol Chem 1977; 252: 1107–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gottlieb C, Skinner SAM, Kornfeld S. Isolation of a clone of Chinese hamster ovary cells deficient in plant lectin-binding sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1974; 71: 1078–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Galway AB, Hsueh AJW, Keene JL, Yamoto M, Fauser BCJM, Boime I. In vitro and in vivo bioactivity of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone and deglycosylated variants secreted by transfected eukaryotic cell lines. Endocrinology 1990; 127: 93–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dahl KD, Bicsak TA, Hsueh AJH. Naturally occurring antihormones: secretion of FSH antagonists by women treated with a GnRH analog. Science 1988; 239: 72–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Werb Z, Mainardi CL, Vater CA, Harris ED. Endogenous activation of latent collagenase by rheumatoid synovial cells. New Engl J Med 1977; 296: 1017–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ny T, Bjersing L, Hsueh MW. Loskutoff OJ. Cultured granulosa cells produce two plasminogen activators and an antiactivator, each regulated differently by gonadotropins. Endocrinology 1985; 116: 1666–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Galway AB, Oikawa M, Ny T, Hsueh AJW. Epidermal growth factor stimulates tissue plasminogen activator activity and messenger ribonucleic acid levels in cultured rat granulosa cells: mediation by pathways independent of protein kinases-A and -C. Endocrinology 1989; 125: 126–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    LaPolt PS, Yamoto M, Veljkovic M, et al. Basic fibroblast growth factor induction of oocyte maturation and granulosa cell tissue plasminogen activator gene expression. Endocrinology 1990.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu YX, Cajander SB, Ny T, Kristensen D, Hsueh AJW. Gonadotropin regulation of tissue-type plasminogen activator activity in granulosa and theca-interstitial cells during the periovulatory period. Mol Cell Endocrinol 1987; 54; 221–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hsueh AJW, Liu YX, Cajander S, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone induces ovulation in hypophysectomized rats: studies on ovarian tissue-type plasminogen activator activity, messenger ribonucleic acid content and cellular localization. Endocrinology 1988; 122: 1486–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Reich R, Miskin R, Tsafriri A. Follicular plasminogen activator: involvement in ovulation. Endocrinology 1985; 116: 516–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tsafriri A, Bicsak TA, Cajander SB, Ny T, Hsueh AJW. Suppression of ovulation rate by antibodies to tissue-type plasminogen activator and a2-antiplasmin. Endocrinology 1981; 124: 415–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    McClintock JA, Schwartz NB. Changes in pituitary and plasma follicle stimulating hormone concentrations during the rat estrous cycle. Endocrinology 1968; 83: 433–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yamaji T, Peckham WD, Alkinson LE, Dierschke DJ, Knobil E. Radioimmunoassay of rhesus monkey follicle-stimulating hormone (Rh FSH). Endocrinology 1973; 92: 1652–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nuti LC, McShan WH, Meyer RK. Effect of ovine FSH and LH on serum steroids and ovulation in hypophysectomized immature female rats. Endocrinology 1974; 95: 682–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Greenwald GS, Papkoff H. Induction of ovulation in the hypophysectomized proestrous hamster by purified FSH or LH (40992). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1980; 165: 391–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Armstrong DT, Opaysky MA. Superovulation of immature rats by continuous infusion of follicle-stimulating hormone. Biol Reprod 1988; 39: 511–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Brenda Galway
  • Philip S. LaPolt
  • Irving Boime
  • Aaron J. W. Hsueh

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations