Corrections for Atmospheric Refraction in Precise Leveling

  • Yanxing Li
Conference paper
Part of the International Association of Geodesy Symposia book series (IAG SYMPOSIA, volume 104)


The error of atmospheric refraction is one of the main systematic errors in precise leveling. Through many years of tests and studies, the author has selected a model of temperature more applicable to practice and derived a strict formula for calculating the atmospheric refraction in leveling. Satisfactory result has been obtained in the test levelings, thus the foundation has been laid for the practical application in the future.


Earth Surface Testing Line Temperature Model Precise Leveling Leveling Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1).
    Li Yanxing, An accurate formula for refraction corrections in precise leveling (in Chinese), ACTA GEODETICA et CARTOGRAPHICA SINICA, Vot. 13, No. 2, 1934.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yanxing Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Geodetic BrigadeState Seismological BureauTianjinP.R. of China

Personalised recommendations