Nickel occurs in both ionic and metallic forms. Nickel chloride is also known as nickelous chloride; nickel oxide is also called bunsenite.


Health Advisory Nickel Chloride Nickel Sulfate Nickel Compound Nickel Acetate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ACGIH (1983) Amencan Conference of Governmental Industnal Hygienists. TLVsthreshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents in the work environment with intended changes for 1983–84. ACGIH, Cincinnati, OH, p 27Google Scholar
  2. Ambrose AM, Larson PS, Borzelleca JR, Hennigar GR Jr (1976) Long-term toxico-logic assessment of nickel in rats and dogs. J Food Sci Technol 13: 181–187.Google Scholar
  3. Ashrof M, Sybers HD (1974) Lysis of pancreatic exocrine cells and other lesions in rats fed nickel acetate. Am J Pathol 74: 102a.Google Scholar
  4. Casey CE, Robinson MF (1978) Copper, manganese, zinc, nickel, cadmium, and lead in human foetal tissues. Brit J Nutr 39: 639–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clary JJ (1975) Nickel chloride-induced metabolic changes in the rat and guinea pig. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 31: 55–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Culp RJ, Wesner GM, et al. (1978) Handbook of advanced wastewater treatment, 2nd Ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY.Google Scholar
  7. Golomb A (1972) Application of reverse osmosis to electroplating waste treatment. Plating 59 (4): 316–319.Google Scholar
  8. Golomb A (1974) Application of reverse osmosis to electroplating waste treatment. Plating 61 (5): 432–442.Google Scholar
  9. Hannah SA, Telus M, Cohen JM (1977) Removal of uncommon trace metals by physical and chemical treatment processes. J Water Pollut Control Fed 49 (11): 2297–2309.Google Scholar
  10. Ho W, Furst A (1973) Nickel excretion by rats following a single treatment. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 16: 245–248.Google Scholar
  11. Horak E, Sunderman FW Jr (1973) Fecal nickel excretion by healthy adults. Clin Chem 19: 429–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. IARC (1976) International Agency for Research on Cancer. Nickel and nickel compounds. IARC monographs 2: 75–112. IARC, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  13. Keramida V, Etzel JE (1982) Treatment of metal plating wastewater with a disposable ion exchange material. In: Proceedings of the 37th industrial waste conference. Purdue University, Lafayette, IN.Google Scholar
  14. Lestrovoi AP, Itskova AI, Eliseev IN (1974) Effect of nickel on the iodine fixation of the thyroid gland when administered perorally and by inhalation. Gig Sanit 10: 105–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Maruyama T, Hannah SA, Cohen JM (1975) Metal removal by physical and chemical treatment processes. J Water Pollut Control Fed 47 (5): 962–975.Google Scholar
  16. Mayhew DA (1987) Ninety-day gavage study in albino rats using nickel. Draft final report by American Biogenics Corp, Decatur, IL. USEPA Office of Drinking Water, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  17. NAS (1975) National Academy of Sciences. Nickel. National Academy of Sciences committee on medical and biological effects of environmental pollutants. NAS, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  18. Nechay MW, Sunderman FW Jr (1973) Measurements of nickel in hair by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ann Clin Lab Sci 3: 30–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Nillson R (1978) Removal of metals by chemical treatment of municipal wastewater. Water Res 5: 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. NIOSH (1977) National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Criteria for a recommended standard… occupational exposure to inorganic nickel. NIOSH Publication no. 77–164. NIOSH, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  21. O’Dell GD, Miller WJ, King A, Moore SL, Blackmon DM (1971) Effect of dietary nickel level on excretion and nickel content of tissues in male calves. J An Sci 32: 769–773.Google Scholar
  22. Onkelinx C (1973) Compartmental analysis of the metabolism of 63Ni(II) in rats and rabbits. Res Comm Chem Pathol Pharmacol 6: 663.Google Scholar
  23. Phatak SS, Patwardhan VN (1950) Toxicity of nickel. J Sci Indian Res 9B: 70–76. Schroeder HA, Balassa JJ, Vintin WH Jr (1964) Chromium, lead, cadmium, nickel, and titanium in mice: effect on mortality, tumors and tissue levels. J Nutr 83: 239–250.Google Scholar
  24. Schroeder HA, Mitchener M (1971) Toxic effects of trace elements on the reproduction of mice and rats. Arch Environ Hlth 23: 102–106.Google Scholar
  25. Schroeder HA, Mitchener M, Nason AP (1974) Life-term effects of nickel in rats: survival, tumors, interactions with trace elements and tissue levels. J Nutr 104: 239–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Schroeder HA, Mitchener M (1975) Life-term effects of mercury, methyl mercury and nine other trace metals on mice. J Nutr 105: 452–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Stoner GD, Shimkin MB, Troxell MC, Thompson TL, Terry LS (1976) Test for carcinogenicity of metallic compounds by the pulmonary tumor response in strain A mice. Cancer Res 36: 1744–1747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Sunderman FW Jr, Selin CE (1968) The metabolism of nickel-63 carbonyl. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 12: 207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. USEPA (1979a) Water related environmental fate of 129 priority pollutants. EPA Report no. EPA–440/4–79–029. USEPA Office of Water Planning and Standards, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  30. USEPA (1979b) Method 249.1. Atomic absorption, direct aspiration. In: Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes. Report no. EPA–600/ 4–79–020. USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Research Laboratories, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  31. USEPA (1979c) Method 249.2. Atomic absorption, furnace technique. In: Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes. Report no. EPA–600/4–79–020. USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Research Laboratories, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  32. USEPA (1980) Ambient water quality criteria document for nickel. EPA–440/4–80–060. NTIS PB 81–117715. USEPA Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office (ECAO), Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  33. USEPA (1982) Errata for ambient water quality criteria documents. February 23. USEPA Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  34. USEPA (1983a) Nickel occurrence in drinking water, food, and air. USEPA Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  35. USEPA (1983b) Health assessment document for nickel. Report no. EPA–600/8–83–012. USEPA Office of Research and Development (ORD), Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office (ECAO). Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  36. USEPA (1985) Drinking water criteria document for nickel. Report no. EPA–600/X–84–193–1. Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office (ECAO), Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  37. USEPA (1986) Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Fed Regis 51(185): 3399234003. September 24.Google Scholar
  38. Waltschewa W, Slatewa M, Michailow I (1972) Hodenveranderungen bei weissen Ratten durch chronische Verabreichung von Nickel sulfat. (Testicular changes due to long-term administration of nickel sulfate in rats.) Exp Pathol 6: 116–120. ( Ger. with Eng. Abstract )Google Scholar
  39. Weast RC (ed) (1971) CRC handbook of chemistry and physics, 52nd Ed. The Chemical Rubber Co, Cleveland, OH.Google Scholar
  40. Weber CW, Reid BL (1969) Nickel toxicity in young growing mice. J An Sci 28: 620–623.Google Scholar
  41. Whanger PD (1973) Effects of dietary nickel on enzyme activities and mineral content in rats, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 25: 323–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • George W. Ware
    • 1
  1. 1.College of AgricultureUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations