Advertisement

Abstract

Epichlorohydrin is also known as 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane, 3-chlorol-1,2-epoxypropane, chloromethyl oxirane, 2-(chloromethyl)oxirane, and chloropropylene oxide. It is used in the manufacture of epoxide resins, surface active agents, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals (Verschueren 1983). Its structure and properties are shown in Table 1.

Keywords

Inhalation Exposure National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Chemical Abstract Service Probable Human Carcinogen Antifertility Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ACGIH (1982) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVsthreshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents in the workroom environment. ACGIH, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  2. Amoore JE, Hautala E (1983) Odor as an aid to chemical safety: odor threshold compounds with threshold unit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution. J Appl Toxicol 3: 272–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carbone P, Barbata G, Margiotta G, Tomasino A, Granata G (1981) Low epichlorohydrin concentrations induce sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes in vitro. Caryologia 34 (3): 261–266.Google Scholar
  4. Cooper ER, Jones AR, Jackson H (1974) Effects of alpha-chlorohydrin and related compounds on the reproductive organs and fertility of the male rat. J Reprod Fert 39 (2): 379–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dabney BJ, Johnston RV, Quast JF, Park CN (1979) Epichlorohydrin—subchronic studies. III. Cytogenetic evaluation of bone marrow cells from rats exposed by inhalation to epichlorohydrin for four weeks. ICPEMC (International Commission for Protection Against Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens) Document no. 128, 15 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Dean BJ, Hodson-Walker G (1979) An in vitro chromosome assay using cultured rat-liver cells. Mutat Res 64: 329–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. ESE (1984) Environmental Science and Engineering. Review of treatability data for removal of twenty-five synthetic organic chemicals from drinking water. USEPA Office of Drinking Water, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  8. Epstein SS, Arnold E, Andrea J, Bass W, Bishop Y (1972) Detection of chemical mutagens by the dominant lethal assay in the mouse. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 23: 288–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gingell R, Mitschke HR, Dzidic I, Beatty PW, Sarvin VL, Page AC (1985) Disposition and metabolism of [2-“C]epichlorohydrin after oral administration to rats. Drug Metab Dispos 13: 333–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hahn JD (1970) Post-testicular antifertility effects of epichlorohydrin and 2,3epoxypropanol. Nature (London) 226: 87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. IARC (1982) International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Chemical industrial processes and industries associated with cancer in humans. Supplement 4, pp 122123. IARC, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  12. John JA, Quast JF, Murray FJ, Calhoun LS, Staples RE (1983) Inhalation toxicity of epichlorohydrin: effects on fertility in rats and rabbits. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 68. 415–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kawabata A (1981) Studies on the carcinogenic activity of epichlorohydrin by oral administration in male Wistar rats. J Nara Med Assoc 32: 270–280.Google Scholar
  14. Kirkhart B (1981) Micronucleus test on 21 compounds. In: deSerres FJ and Ashby J (eds) Evaluation of short-term tests for carcinogens. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp 698–704.Google Scholar
  15. Knapp AGAC, Voodg CE, Kramers PGN (1982) Comparison of the mutagenic potency of 2-chloroethanol, 2-bromoethanol, 1,2-epoxybutane epichlorohydrin and glycidaldehyde in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Drosophila melanogaster and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Mutat Res 101: 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Konishi T, Kawabata A, Denda A, Ikeda T,,Katada H, Maruyama H, Higashiguchi R (1980) Forestomach tumors induced by orally administered epichlorohydrin in male Wistar rats. Gann 71: 922–923.Google Scholar
  17. Kremneva SN, Tolgskaya MS (1961) Toxicology of epichlorohydrin. Toksikol Nov Prom Khim Veschestv 2: 28–41.Google Scholar
  18. Kucerova M, Zhurkov VS, Polwkova Z, Ivanova JE (1977) Mutagenic effect of epichlorohydrin. II. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of persons occupationally exposed to epichlorohydrin. Mutat Res 48: 355–360.Google Scholar
  19. Laskin S, Sellakumar AR, Kuschner M, Nelson N, LaMendola S, Ruch GM, Katz GV, Dulak NC, Albert RE (1980) Inhalation carcinogenicity of epichlorohydrin in non-inbred Sprague–Dawley rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 65 (4): 751–758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Mabey W, Mill T (1978) Critical review of hydrolysis of organic compounds in water under environmental conditions. J Phys Chem Ref Data 7: 385–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marks TA, Gerling FS, Staples RE (1982) Teratogenic evaluation of epichlorohydrin in the mouse and rat and glycidol in the mouse. J Toxicol Environ Hlth 9: 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moore-Brown MM and Clive D (1979) The L5178Y/TK mutagen assay system: in situ results. Banbury Report 2: 71–88.Google Scholar
  23. NAS (1980) National Academy of Sciences. Drinking water and health. Vol 3. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. pp 111–124.Google Scholar
  24. Norppa H, Hemminki K, Sorsa M, Vainio H (1981) Effect of monosubstituted epoxides on chromosome aberrations and SCE in cultured human lymphocytes. Mutat Res 91: 243–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. OSHA (1985) Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Code of Federal Regulations. Title 29—Labor. Part 1910—Occupational safety and health standards. Subpart 2—Toxic and hazardous substances. Section 1910. 1000 Air contaminants. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p. 656. July 1, 1985.Google Scholar
  26. Picciano D (1979a) Cytogenic investigation of occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin. Mutat Res 66: 169–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Picciano D (1979b) Faulty experimental design and underutilization of cytogenetic data. Benzene and epichlorohydrin. Ann NY Acad Sci 329: 321–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pilny MK, Lederer TS, Murray JS, et al. (1979) Epichlorohydrin subchronic studies. I V. The effects of maternally inhaled epichlorohydrin on rat and rabbit embryonal and fetal development. Unpublished report. Toxicol Res Lab Health Environ Sci, Dow Chemical USA, Midland, MI.Google Scholar
  29. Quast JF, Henck JW, Pastma BJ, Scheutz DJ, McKenna MJ (1979) Epichlorohydrin subchronic studies. I. A 90-day inhalation study in laboratory rodents (Fischer-344 rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and B6C3F, mice). Dow Chemical USA, Midland, MI, 166 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Rossi AM, Migliore D, Lascialfan D, Sbrana I, Loprieno N (1983) Genotoxicity, metabolism, and blood kinetics of epichlorohydnn in mice. Mutat Res 118: 213–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smith FA, Langvardt PW, Young JD (1979) Pharmacokinetics of epichlorohydnn (EPI) administered to rats by gavage or inhalation. Dow Chemical USA, Toxicol Res Lab, Midland, MI, 51 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Sram RJ, Cerna M, Kucerova M (1976) The genetic risk of epichlorohydrin as related to the occupational exposure. Biol Zbl 95: 451–462.Google Scholar
  33. Sram RJ, Zudova Z, Kuleshov NP (1980) Cytogenic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes in workers occupationally exposed to epichlorohydnn. Mutat Res 70: 115–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tsuchimoto T, Matter BE (1981) Activity of coded compounds in the micronucleus test. In: Seeres FJ and Ashby J (eds) Evaluation of short-term tests for carcinogens. Elsevier North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp 705–711.Google Scholar
  35. USEPAa (1984) Health assessment document for epichlorohydnn. Final report. Report no. EPA–600/8–83–032F. USEPA Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  36. USEPA documents can be obtained by writing to the appropriate office within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street, S W., Washington, DC 20460. They may also be available by contacting the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Spnngfield, VA 22161 (Telephone. 1–800–336–4700)Google Scholar
  37. USEPAa (1985a) Drinking water criteria document for epichlorohydrin. Final Draft. ECAD-CFN-413. USEPA Office of Drinking Water, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  38. USEPAa (1985b) National primary drinking water regulations; Synthetic organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals and microorganisms; Proposed rule. Fed Regis 50(219): 4693–4702, November 13.Google Scholar
  39. USEPAa (1985c) Method 524.1. Volatile organic compounds in water by purge and trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory (EMSL), Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  40. USEPAa (1985d) Technologies and costs for removal of organic chemicals from potable water supplies (Draft). USEPA Science and Technology Branch, Criteria and Standards Division, Office of Drinking Water, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  41. USEPAa (1985e) Designation of hazardous substance. Code of Federal Regulations. 40 CFR 116:37.Google Scholar
  42. USEPAa (1985f) The national pollutant discharge elimination system. 40 CFR 122:101. •Google Scholar
  43. USEPAa (1985g) Identification and listing of hazardous wastes. 40 CDR 261: 384.Google Scholar
  44. USEPAa (1986) Guidelines for carcinogenic risk assessment. Fed Regis 51(185): 33992–34003. September 24.Google Scholar
  45. Duuren BL, Katz C, Goldschmidt BM (1972) Direct-acting alkylating carcinogens—chloro ethers and related compounds. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 22: 279–280.Google Scholar
  46. Duuren BL, Goldschmidt BM, Katz C, Seidman I, Paul JS (1974) Carcinogenic activity of alkylating agents. J Natl Cancer Inst 53: 695–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Esch GJ (1981) Induction of preneoplastic lesions in the forestomach of rats after oral administration of 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane. I. Range finding studies. Carcinogenicity study. Prepared by Ryksinstitute Voor De Voksgezondheld Bilthoven. Report no. 627 805–005.Google Scholar
  48. Esch GJ (1982) Induction of preneoplastic lesions in the forestomach of rats after oral administration of 1-chloro-2,3-epozypropane. II. Carcinogenicity study. Prepared by Ryksinstitute Voor De Voksgezondheld Bilthoven. Report no. 62 7805–7005.Google Scholar
  49. Verschueren K (1983) Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 2nd Ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY, pp 611–613.Google Scholar
  50. Wester PW, Van Der Heiden CA, Bisschop A, Van Esch GJ (1985) Carcinogenicity study with epichlorohydrin ( CEP) by gavage in rats. Toxicology 36: 325–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. White AD (1980) In vitro induction of sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes by epichlorohydrin with and without metabolic activation. Mutat Res 78: 171–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wurgler FE, Graf U (1981) Mutagenic activity of ten coded compounds in the Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal assay. In: de Serres FJ and Ashby J (eds) Evaluation of short-term tests for carcinogens, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam. pp 666–672.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • George W. Ware
    • 1
  1. 1.College of AgricultureUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations