Advertisement

Abstract

Styrene, also known as vinylbenzene, cinnamene, phenylethylene, and ethenylbenzene, is used in plastics. Its structure and properties are shown in Table 1. Styrene is produced primarily from dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. In 1982, U.S. production of styrene totaled 5.9 billion lb (2.7 billion kg).

Keywords

Spontaneous Abortion Health Advisory Styrene Oxide Threshold Limit Value Governmental Industrial Hygienist 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ACGIH (1981) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs —Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents in the workroom environment with intended changes for 1981. ACGIH, Cincinnati, OH, p 50.Google Scholar
  2. ACGIH (1982) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. TLVs —Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents in the workroom environment with intended changes for 1982. ACGIH, Cincinnati, OH, p 29.Google Scholar
  3. Agrawal AK, Srivastava SP, Seth PK (1982) Effect of styrene on dopamine receptors. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 29 (4): 400–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boland PA° (1981) National screening program for organics in drinking water. EPA contract 68–01–4666. Stanford Research Institute (SRI) International. USEPA Office of Drinking Water, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  5. Carpenter CP, Shaffer CB, Weil CS, Smyth HF (1944) Studies on the inhalation of 1,3-butadiene with a comparison to its narcotic effect with benzol, toluol and styrene, and a note on the elimination of styrene by the human. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 26 (3): 69–78.Google Scholar
  6. Das M, Dixit R, Mushtaq M, Srivastava SP, Seth PK (1981) Effect of styrene on hepatic mixed function oxidases, glutathione content and glutathione-S-transferase activity in rats. Drug Chem Toxicol 4 (3): 219–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Meester C, Poncelet F, Roberfroid M, Rondelet J, Mercier M (1977) Mutagenicity of styrene and styrene oxide. Mutat Res 56 (2): 147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Meester C, Durverger-Van Bogaert M, Lambotte-Vandepaer M, Mercier M, Poncelet F (1981) Mutagenicity of styrene in the Salmonella typhimurium test system. Chem Biol Interact 20 (2): 163–170.Google Scholar
  9. Dowty BJ, Laseter JL, Storer J (1976) Transplacental migration and accumulation in blood of volatile organic constituents. Pediatr Res 10: 696–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fiserova-Bergerova V, Teisinger J (1965) Pulmonary styrene vapor retention. Ind Med Surg 34: 620–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gamberale F, Hultengren M (1974) Exposure to styrene. II. Psychological functions. Work Environ Hlth 11 (2): 86–93.Google Scholar
  12. Hansch C, Leo AJ (1979) Substituent constants for correlation analysis in chemistry and biology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  13. Hemminki K, Franssila E, Vainio H (1980) Spontaneous abortion among female chemical workers in Finland. Int Arch Occup Hlth 45: 123–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Holmberg PC (1977) Central nervous defects in two children of mothers exposed to chemicals in the reinforced plastics industry. Scand J Work Environ Hlth 5: 333–335.Google Scholar
  15. IARC (1987) International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity and updating of IARC monographs. Vol 1–42, suppl 7. IARC, Lyon, France, p 345–347.Google Scholar
  16. IARC (1985) International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic nsk of chemicals to humans: Alkyl compounds, aldehydes, epoxides, and peroxides. Vol 36. IARC, Lyon, France, pp 245–263.Google Scholar
  17. Jersey G, Balmer M, Quast J, Park CN, Schuetz DJ, Beyer JE, Olson KJ, McCollister SB, Rampy LW (1978) Two-year chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity study on monomeric styrene in rats. Dow Chemical Study for Manufacturing Chemical Association. December 6.Google Scholar
  18. Lewis Pi, Hagopian C, Koch P (1983) Styrene. In: Grayson M and Eckroth D (eds) Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical toxicology, Vol 21. 3rd Ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY. pp 770–801.Google Scholar
  19. Lijinsky W (1986) Rat and mouse forestomach tumors induced by chronic oral administration of styrene. J Natl Cancer Inst 77 (2): 471–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Maltoni C, Failla G, Kassapidis G (1979) First experimental demonstration of the carcinogenic effects of styrene oxide: Long-term bioassays on Sprague-Dawley rats by oral administration. Med Lay 70 (50): 358–362.Google Scholar
  21. Maltoni C, Cilberti A, Carnetti D (1982) Experimental contnbutions in identifying brain potential carcinogens in the petrochemical industry. Ann New York Acad Sci 381: 216–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McMichael AJ, Spirtas R, Gamble JF, Tousey PM (1976) Mortality among rubber workers: Relationship to specific jobs. J Occup Med 18: 178–185.Google Scholar
  23. Meinhardt T, Young R, Hartle R (1978) Epidemiologic investigations of styrene-butadiene rubber production and reinforced plastic production. Scand J Work Environ Hlth 8 (4). 250–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Murray FJ, John JA, Haberstoh HD, et al. (1976) Teratologic evaluation of styrene monomers administered rats by gavage. Dow Chemical Study for Manufacturing Chemical Association. August 26.Google Scholar
  25. Murray FJ, John JA, Balmer MF, Schwetz BA (1978) Teratologic evaluation of styrene given to rats and rabbits by inhalation or by gavage. Toxicology 11 (4): 335–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. NCI (1979) National Cancer Institute. Bioassay of styrene for possible carcinogenicity. National Cancer Institute carcmogenesis technical report series no. 185. NCI, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  27. NIOSH (1983) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Criteria for a recommended standard… occupational exposure to styrene. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), NIOSH Publication no. 83–119. US DHHS, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  28. Odkvist LM, Larsby B, Tham R, Ahlfeldt H, Anderson B, Eriksson B, Liedgren SRC (1982) Vestibulo-oculomotor disturbances in humans exposed to styrene. Acta Oto-Laryngol 94 (5–6): 487–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ohtsuji M, Ikeda M (1971) Metabolism of styrene in the rat and the stimulatory effect of phenobarbital Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 18 (2): 321–328.Google Scholar
  30. Pellizzari ED, Hartwell TD, Harris BSH, Waddell RD, Whitaker DA, Erickson MD (1982) Purgeable organic compounds in mother’s milk. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 28 (3): 322–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Plotnick HB, Weigel WW (1979) Tissue distribution and excretion of 14C-styrene in male and female rats. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 24 (3): 515–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ponomarkov VI, Tomatis L (1978) Effects of long-term oral administration of styrene to mice and rats. Scand J Work Environ Hlth 4 (Supplement 2): 127–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ponomarkov V, Cabral J, Wahrendorf J, Galendo D (1984) A carcinogenicity study of styrene-7,8-oxide in rats. Cancer Lett 24: 95–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Quast JF, Kalvins RP, Olson KJ, et al. (1978) Results of a toxicity study in dogs and teratogenicity studies in rabbits and rats administered monomeric styrene. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 45: 293–294.Google Scholar
  35. Quast JF, Humiston CG, Kalvins RV, Olson KJ, McCollister SB, Wade CE, Beyer JE, Schwetz BA (1979) Results of a toxicity study of monomeric styrene administered to beagle dogs by oral intubation for 19 months. Toxicology Research Laboratory, Health and Environmental Sciences, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI. Final report. Submitted to USEPA Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  36. Ramsey JC, Young JD (1978) Pharmacokinetics of inhaled styrene in rats and humans. Scand J Work and Hlth 4 (Supplement 2): 84–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ramsey JC and Young JD (1980) Comparative pharmacokinetics of inhaled styrene in rats and humans. In: Proceedings 10th conference on environmental toxicology. November, 1979. AFAMRL-TR-79–121. Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH. pp 103–117.Google Scholar
  38. Ramsey JC, Young JD, Karbowski RJ, Chenoweth MB, McCarty LP, Braun WH (1980) Pharmacokinetics of inhaled styrene in human volunteers. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 53 (1): 54–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sikov MR, Cannon WC, Carr DB, Miller RA, Montgomery LF, Phelps DW (1981) Teratologic assessment of butylene oxide, styrene oxide and methyl bromide. Study performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA, for National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Division of Biochemical and Behavioral Science, Experimental Toxicology Branch, Washington, DC. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) (NIOSH) Publication no. 81–124.Google Scholar
  40. Smith AH, Ellis L (1977) Styrene butadiene rubber synthetic plants and leukemia (letter to the editor). J Occup Med 19 (7): 441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Spencer HC, Irish DD, Adams EM, Rowe VK (1942) The response of laboratory animals to monomeric styrene. J Ind Toxicol 24 (10): 295–301.Google Scholar
  42. Srivastava SP, Das M, Mushtaq M, Chandra SV, Seth PK (1982) Hepatic effects of orally administered styrene in rats. J Appl Toxicol 2 (4): 219–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stewart RD, Dodd HC, Baretta ED, Schaffer AW (1968) Human exposure to styrene vapor. Arch Environ Hlth 16 (5): 656–662.Google Scholar
  44. Teramoto K, Horiguchi S (1979) Absorption, distribution and elimination of styrene in man and experimental animals. Arch Hig Rada Toksikol 30 (Supplement): 431–439.Google Scholar
  45. USEPA (1988) Draft health effects criteria document for styrene. USEPA Office of Drinking Water, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  46. USEPA (1986) Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Fed Regis 51(185): 3399234003. September 24.Google Scholar
  47. USEPA (1985a) Method 503. 1. Volatile aromatic organic compounds in water by purge and trap gas chromatography. USEPA Environmental Monitonng and Support Laboratory (EMSL), Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  48. USEPA (1985b) Method 524. 1. Volatile organic compounds in water by purge and trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory (EMSL), Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  49. USEPA(1985c) Draft technologies and costs for removal of synthetic organic chemicals from potable water supplies. USEPA Science and Technology Branch, Criteria and Standards Division, Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  50. Vainio H, Paakonen R, Ronnholm K, Raunio V, Pelkonen 0 (1976) A study on the mutagenic activity of styrene and styrene oxide. Scand J Work Environ 3: 147–151.Google Scholar
  51. Withey JR, Collins PG (1977) Pharmacokinetics and distnbution of styrene monomer in rats after intravenous administration. J Toxicol Environ Hlth 3 (5–6): 1011–1120.Google Scholar
  52. Withey JR, Collins PG (1979) The distribution and pharmacokinetics of styrene monomer in rats by the pulmonary route. J. Environ Pathol Toxicol 2 (6): 1329–1342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Wolf MA, Rowe VK, McColhster DD, Hollingsworth RL, Oyen F (1956) Toxicological studies of certain alkylated benzenes and benzene. Arch Ind Hlth 14: 387–398.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • George W. Ware
    • 1
  1. 1.College of AgricultureUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations