Advertisement

Toxicology of Monocrotophos

  • Thomas Skripsky
  • Rolf Loosli
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 139)

Abstract

Toxicological data that were generated in the early 1960s met the state of the art for that time. New tests were performed as science and regulatory requirements developed. The aim of this presentation is to reflect today’s assessment of the existing data. As a rule, only the latest studies in each field have been included. The reference list contains titles of preceding reviews in which the bibliography of early studies, rendered obsolete through changed regulatory requirements, is accessible. All experimental data pertinent to assessing the safety of monocrotophos to users and consumers have been included.

Keywords

Unpublished Report Micronucleus Test Acute Oral Toxicity Stanford Research Institute Dermal Toxicity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adhikari N, Grover IS (1988) Genotoxic effects of some systemic pesticides: In vivo chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells in rats. Environ Mol Mut 12: 235–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bathe R (1972a) Acute oral LD50 of A-4116 (Nuvacron® 60 SCW) in the rat. Proj. No. Siss 2206. Unpublished report, December 11, 1972, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Sisseln, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  3. Bathe R (1972b) Acute oral LD50 of A-3805 B (Nuvacron® 40 SCW) in the rat. Proj. No. Siss 2205. Unpublished report, December 11, 1972, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Sisseln, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  4. Bathe R (1973a) Acute dermal LD50 of A-4116 (Nuvacron® 60 SCW) in the rat. Proj. No. Siss 2206. Unpublished report, March 29, 1973, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Sisseln, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  5. Bathe R (1973b) Acute dermal LD50 of A-3805 B (Nuvacron® 40 SCW) in the rat. Proj. No. Siss 2205. Unpublished report, March 15, 1973, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Sisseln, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  6. Becci PJ, Parent RA (1981) Neurotoxicity evaluation of Azodrin® insecticide: Sub-chronic oral administration in hens. Proj. No. 6535-II. Unpublished report, April 2, 1981, Food and Drug Research Laboratories, Inc., Waverly, NY.Google Scholar
  7. Bhunya SP, Behera BC (1988) Mutagenicity assay of an organophosphorus pesti- cide, monocrotophos in mammalian in vivo test system. Cytologia 53: 801–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borders CK, Salamon CM, Mayhew DA (1983) Technical Azodrin (SD 9129) teratology study in SD CD rats. Proj. No. 450–1248. Unpublished report, November 16, 1983, Toxi-Genics Inc., Decatur, IL.Google Scholar
  9. Bretz R, Senften D (1981a) Report on acute aerosol inhalation toxicity in the rat of C-1414 SCW 200 (A-1415 C). Proj. No. 81–0625. Unpublished report, July 8, 1981, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  10. Bretz R, Senften D (1981b) Report on acute aerosol inhalation toxicity in the rat of C-1414 ULV 25 (A-4135 A). Proj. No. 81–0618. Unpublished report, July 6, 1981, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  11. Brown VK (1964) The efficacy of atropine and oxime therapy as an antidote to poisoning by SD 9129 in guinea-pigs. Techn. Memo Tox. 20/64. Unpublished report, Shell Research Ltd., Sittingbourne, UK.Google Scholar
  12. Cagen SZ (1981a) Primary skin irritation of Azodrin-5 (C 1414 SL 550). Proj. No. WRC RIR-171. Unpubished report, August 24, 1981, Westhollow Research Center, Shell Development Company, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  13. Cagen SZ (1981b) Eye irritation of Azodrin-5 (C 1414 SL 550). Proj. No. WRC RIR-173. Unpubished report, September 2, 1991, Westhollow Research Center, Shell Development Company, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
  14. Carere A, Ortali VA, Cardamone G, Morpurgo G (1978) Mutagenicity of dichlorvos and other structurally related pesticides in Salmonella and Streptomyces. Chem Biol Interact 22: 297–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Christian M (1992) Statements concerning the brain malformations identified in the study “Technical Azodrin (SD 9129) teratology study in SD CD rats” by ToxiGenics Inc., 1983. Unpublished letter, February 16, 1992, reisssued December 11, 1992, Argus International, Inc., Horsham, PA.Google Scholar
  16. Dearlove GE (1987) Developmental toxicity study of Azodrin insecticide (technical) in New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Project No. 619–005. Unpublished report, January 12, 1987, supplemented with historical control data, from Argus Research Laboratories, Inc., Horsham, PA.Google Scholar
  17. Dix KM, Thorpe E. (1981) A reproduction study in rats fed Azodrin®. Proj. No. 1752. Unpublished report, November 1981, Sittingbourne Research Centre, Sittingbourne, UK.Google Scholar
  18. Doyle RL, Elsea JR (1965) Repeated application of technical Bidrin insecticide and Azodrin® (C 1414) to the skin of rabbits. Unpublished report, August 17, 1965, Hill Top Research, Inc., Miamiville, OH.Google Scholar
  19. Duma D, Raicu P, Hamar M, Tutâ A (1977) Cytogenetic effects of some pesticides on rodents. Rev Roum Biol-Biol Anim 22 (1): 93–96.Google Scholar
  20. Fuchs A (1992) C 1414 tech., Oral (gavage) teratogenicity study in the rat. Proj. No. 380–195. Unpublished report, December 23, 1992, Hazleton Deutschland GmbH, Münster, Germany.Google Scholar
  21. Gallo MA, Lawryk NJ (1991) Organic phosphorus pesticides. In: Hayes WJ, Laws ER (Eds), Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Vol 2, Classes of Pesticides, Academic Press, San Diego, pp 917–1123.Google Scholar
  22. Gaughan LC, Engel JL, Casida JE (1980) Pesticide interactions: Effects of organo-phosphorus pesticides on the metabolism, toxicity and persistence of selected pyrethroid insecticides. Pestic Biochem Physiol 14: 81–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hagemann C (1992a) C 1414 tech.: Acute dermal irritation/corrosion study in the rabbit. Proj. No. 911265. Unpublished report, April 7, 1992, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Stein, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  24. Hagemann C (1992 b) C 1414 tech.: Acute eye irritation/corrosion study in the rabbit. Proj. No. 911266. Unpublished report, April 10, 1992, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Stein, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  25. Hagemann C, Waller A, Heider K, Landes C, Basler W (1992) C 1414 tech.: 28-day repeated dose dermal toxicity study in the rat. Proj. No. 911267, December 10, 1992. Unpublished report, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Stein, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  26. Hartmann HR (1992) C 1414 tech.: Acute dermal toxicity in the rat. Proj. No. 911264, May 7, 1992. Unpublished report, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Stein, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  27. Hend RW, Brown VKH (1981) A reversibility study of cholinesterase activity in rats fed Azodrin for 8 weeks. Proj. No. 1720. Unpublished report, June 1981, Sittingbourne Research Centre, Shell Toxicology Laboratory (Tunstall), Sitting-bourne, UK.Google Scholar
  28. Hertner T (1992a) Micronucleus test, mouse-in vivo study. Proj. No. 922101. Unpublished report, October 28, 1992, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  29. Hertner T (1992b) Cytogenetic test on Chinese hamster cells in vitro. Proj. No. 922100, November 27, 1992. Unpublished report, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  30. Hool G, Ami P (1986) Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test, C 1414 tech. Project No. 850810, February 3, 1986. Unpublished report, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  31. Hurni H, Sachsse K (1969) Report on the determination of the acute dermal LD50 to the rat of monocrotophos technical (C 1414). Unpublished report, May 6, 1969, Tierfarm AG, now Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Sisseln, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  32. Hurni H, Sachsse K (1970a) Report on the determination of the acute oral LDS, to the rabbit of monocrotophos technical (C 1414). Unpublished report, January 4, 1970, Tierfarm AG, now Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Sisseln, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  33. Hurni H, Sachsse K (1970b) Sensitizing effect on Guinea pigs of C 1414 technical. Unpublished report, January 21, 1970, Tierfarm AG, now Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Sisseln, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  34. Johnston CD (1966) Azodrin® (C1414) safety evaluation by chronic feeding studies in the rat and the dog for two years, interim report: 52 weeks. Unpublished report, September 13, 1966, Woodard Research Corporation, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  35. Johnston CD, Thompson WM, Donoso J (1967) Azodrin® (C1414) safety evaluation by chronic feeding study in the dog for 2 years, final report. Unpublished report, July 10, 1967, Woodard Research Corporation, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  36. Jotz MM, Mitchell AD, Jones DCL, Skinner WA (1980) An evaluation of muta-genic potential of monocrotophos employing the L5178Y TK mouse lymphoma assay. Proj. No. LSU-7558, September 1980. Unpublished report, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  37. Kirkhart B, Jones DCL, Skinner WA (1980) Micronucleus test on monocrotophos. Proj. No. LSU 7558–19, March 10, 1980. Unpublished report prepared for EPA, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  38. Kumar VD, Janardhan A (1988) Mutagenicity of monocrotophos in mice. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 41: 189–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lin MF, Wu CL, Wang TC (1987) Pesticide clastogenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Mut Res 188: 241–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lundehn J-R, Westphal D, Kieczka H, Krebs B, Löcher-Bolz S, Maasfeld W, Pick E-D (1992) Uniform Principles for Safeguarding the Health of Applicators of Plant Protection Products (Uniform Principles for Operator Protection) Mitteilungen der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land-and Forstwirtschaft, Heft 277, Paul Parey, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  41. Mehani S, El-Habashi A, Soliman S (1978) Evaluation of certain oximes and atropine in the treatment of rats intoxicated with organophosphorus insecticides. Ain Shams Med J 29 (5/6): 383–389.Google Scholar
  42. Moriya M, Ohta T, Watanabe K, Miyazawa T, Kato K, Shirasu Y (1983) Further mutagenicity studies on pesticides in bacterial reversion assay systems. Mut Res 116: 185–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mortelmanns KE, Shepperd GF, Jones DCL, Skinner WA (1980) In vitro detection of mitotic crossing-over, mitotic gene conversion and reverse mutation with S. cerevisiae D7 for seven pesticides. Proj. No. LSU-7558–20, September 1980. Unpublished report, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  44. Muir CMC (1968) Plant metabolite of Azodrin, SD 11734 (WL 22796). Bioassay card, December 5, 1968. Unpublished report, Shell Research Ltd., Sittingbourne, UK.Google Scholar
  45. Newell GW, Dilley JV (1978) Teratology and acute toxicology of selected chemical pesticides administered by inhalation. Springfield, U.S. Department of Commerce NTIS-PB-277. 077.Google Scholar
  46. Owen DE, Butterworth STG, Brown VKH, Thorpe E (1978) Toxicity of organo-phosphorus insecticide Azodrin: Investigation of the neurotoxic potential of Azodrin-5 to adult domestic hens. Proj. No. TLGR.0066.78. Unpublished report, May 1978, Shell Research Limited, Sittingbourne Research Centre, Sitting-bourne, UK.Google Scholar
  47. Peiris JB, Fernando R, De Abrew K (1988) Respiratory failure from severe organo-phosphate toxicity due to absorption through the skin. Forensic Sci Int 36: 251–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Reiff B (1969) Pharmacological studies into the toxic actions of cholinesterase inhibitors. Part 9. Proj. No. TLGR.0008. 69. Unpublished report, Shell Research Ltd., Sittingbourne, UK.Google Scholar
  49. Robinson J, Brown VKH (1982) A two-year oncogenicity study in mice fed Azodrin. Proj. No. 194/82 (AIA 1680). Unpublished report, September 30, 1982, Shell Research Limited, Sittingbourne Research Centre, Sittingbourne, UK.Google Scholar
  50. Robinson J, Gellatly JBM, Brown VKH (1983) A long-term feeding study with Azodrin in rats to investigate chronic toxicity and oncogenicity (6, 12, 18 and 24 month necropsies). Proj. No. 194/82. Unpublished report, March 15, 1983, Shell Research Limited, Sittingbourne Research Centre, Sittingbourne, UK.Google Scholar
  51. Rupa DS, Lakshman RPV, Reddy PP, Reddi OS (1988) In vitro effect of monocrotophos on human lymphocytes. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 41:737–741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sachsse K, Bathe R, Hurni H (1970a) Report on the determination of the acute oral LD50 of C-1414 ULV 25/6 to the rat = Nuvacron Ulvair® 250 (A-4135 A). Unpublished report, August 10, 1970, Tierfarm AG, now Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Sisseln, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  53. Sachsse K, Bathe R, Hurni H (1970b) Report on the determination of the acute dermal LD50 of C-1414 ULV 25/6 to the rat = Nuvacron Ulvair® 250 (A-4135 A). Unpublished report, September 25, 1970, Tierfarm AG, now Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Sisseln, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  54. Sachsse K (1973a) Acute inhalation toxicty of technical C 1414 (monocrotophos) in the rat. Proj. No. Siss 2780. Unpublished report, June 4, 1973, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Sisseln, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  55. Sachsse K (1973b) Acute inhalation toxicty of A-4116 (Nuvacron® 60 SCW) in the rat. Proj. No. Siss 2206. Unpublished report, January 16, 1973, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Sisseln, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  56. Sachsse K (1973c) Acute inhalation toxicty of A-3805 B (Nuvacron® 40 SCW) in the rat. Proj. No. Siss 2205. Unpublished report, January 16, 1973, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Sisseln, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  57. Sachsse K, Bathe R (1975) Acute oral LD50 of technical monocrotophos (C 1414) in the rat. Proj. No. Siss 69. Unpublished report, January 23, 1975, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  58. Sandhu SS, Waters MD, Simmon VF, Mortelmans KE, Mitchell AD, Jorgenson T, Jones DCL, Valencia R, Stack F (1985) Evaluation of the genotoxffc potential of certain pesticides used in Pakistan. Basic Life Sci 34: 185–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Sarasin G (1981a) Report on acute oral LD50 in the rat of C 1414, SCW 200, A-4115 C. Proj. No. 810621. Unpublished report, July 28, 1981, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  60. Sarasin G (198 lb) Report on acute dermal LD50 in the rat of C 1414, SCW 200, A-4115 C. Proj. No. 810624. Unpublished report, July 28, 1981, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  61. Sarasin G (1981c) Report on acute oral LD50 in the rat of C 1414, ULV 25, A-4135 A. Proj. No. 810614. Unpublished report, July 28, 1981, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  62. Sarasin G (1981d) Report on acute dermal LD50 in the rat of C 1414, ULV 25, A-4135 A. Proj. No. 810617. Unpublished report, August 11, 1981, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  63. Schoch M, Fritz H (1986) C 1414 40 SCW (A-3805 A) acute oral toxicity in the rat. Proj. No. 860413. Unpublished report, May 20, 1986, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  64. Schoch M (1986) C 1414 SCW 40 (A-3805 A) acute dermal toxicity in the rat. Proj. No. 860777. Unpublished report, October 3, 1986, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  65. Senanayke N, Karalliede L (1987) Neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus insecticides. An intermediate syndrome. N Engl J Med 316: 761–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Shellenberger TE, Newell GW (1962) Report No. 86, Ref. Proj. B-1008. Unpublished report, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  67. Shellenberger TE, Newell GW (1963) Report No. 105, Ref. Proj. B-1008. Unpublished report, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  68. Shellenberger TE, Newell GW (1964a) Letter Report No. 107, Ref. Proj. B-1008. Unpublished report, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  69. Shellenberger TE, Newell GW (1964b) Subacute toxicity and cholinesterase study of Shell compound SD 9129 (C1414)-rat and dog. Unpublished report, December 9, 1964, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  70. Shellenberger TE (1965a) Letter Report No. 117, Ref. Proj. B-1008. Unpublished report, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  71. Shellenberger TE (1965b) Subacute toxicity study of Shell compound SD 9129 (C1414)-dog. Addendum to tech. report/part 1. Unpublished report, October 1, 1965, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  72. Shellenberger TE (1965c) Letter Report No. 9, Ref. Proj. B-4843. Unpublished report, October 19, 1965, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  73. Shellenberger TE (1966) Subacute toxicity and cholinesterase study of Shell Compound SD 13311-rat. Proj. No. SS-5908. Unpublished report, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  74. Shellenberger TE (1980) Organophosphate pesticide inhibition of cholinesterase in laboratory animals and man and effects of oxime reactivators. J Environ Sci Hlth B15 (6): 795–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shirasu Y, Moriya M, Tezuka H, Teramoto S, Ohta T, Inoue T (1984) Mutagenicity of pesticides. Environ Sci Res 31: 617–624.Google Scholar
  76. Simmon VF, Mitchell AD, Jorgenson T (1977) Evaluation of selected pesticides as chemical mutagens “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies. Project report EPA–600/ 1–77–028. Unpublished report, May 1977, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  77. Sobti RC, Krishan A, Pfaffenberger CD (1982) Cytokinetic and cytogenetic effects of some agricultural chemicals on human lymphoid cells in vitro. Mut Res 102: 89–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Strasser F, Ami P (1986) Chromosome studies on somatic cells of Chinese hamster, C 1414 tech. Project No. 850808. Unpublished report, March 18, 1986, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  79. Strasser F, Langauer M, Ami P (1986) Nucleus anomaly test in somatic interphase nuclei of Chinese hamster, C 1414 tech. Project No. 850809. Unpublished report, February 7, 1986, Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  80. Swamy KV, Ravikumar R, Murali Mohan P (1992a) Changes in cholinesterase system in different brain areas during the development of behavioral tolerance to monocrotophos toxicity in male albino rats. Biochem Int 27 (4): 661–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Swamy KV, Ravikumar R, Murali Mohan P (1992b) Effect of chronic sublethal daily dosing of monocrotophos on some aspects of protein metabolism in rat brain. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 49: 723–729.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tripathy NK, Patnaik KK (1992) Studies on the genotoxicity of monocrotophos in somatic and germ-line cells of Drosophila. Mut Res 278: 23–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vaidya VG, Patanakar N (1982) Mutagenic effect of monocrotophos-An insecticide in mammalian test systems. Ind J Med Res 76: 912–917.Google Scholar
  84. Valencia R (1981) Mutagenesis screening of pesticides using Drosophila. Project report EPA 600/1–81–017, Contract No. 68–01–274. Unpublished report, February 1981, WARF Institute, Inc., Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  85. Vallini G, Pera A, de Bertoldi M (1983) Genotoxic efects of some agricultural pesticides in vitro tested with Aspergillus nidulans. Environ Polut (Series A) 30: 39–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Verberk MM (1972) Cholinesterase inhibition in man caused by 30 days’ administration of monocrotophos (translation). Unpublished report, December 1972, Coro-nel Laboratory, University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  87. Verberk MM (1977) Incipient cholinesterase inhibition in volunteers ingesting monocrotophos or mevinphos for one month. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 42: 345–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wang TC, Lee TC, Lin MF, Lin SY (1987) Induction of sister chromatid exchanges by pesticides in primary rat tracheal epithelial cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Mut Res 188: 311–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Waters MD, Sandhu SS, Simmon VF, Mortelmans KE, Mitchell AD, Jorgenson T, Jones DCL, Valencia R, Garrett NE (1982) Study of pesticide genotoxicity. Basic Life Sci 21: 275–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. World Health Organization (WHO) (1973) 1972 evaluations of some pesticide residues in food. WHO Pesticide Residues Series, No. 2, World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 423–435.Google Scholar
  91. WHO (1976) 1975 evaluations of some pesticide residues in food. WHO Pesticide Residues Series, No. 5, World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 313–326.Google Scholar
  92. WHO (1991) Pesticide residues in food- 1991. Joint FAO/WHO meeting on pesticide residues. Evaluations 1991, Part II-Toxicology. IPCS/International Programme on Chemical Safety. Monocrotophos, pp 287–300.Google Scholar
  93. WHO (1992) International Programme on Chemical Safety. The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification 1992–1993. WHO/PCS/92. 14. United Nations Environmental Programme, International Labour Organization and World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  94. WHO (1994) Pesticide residues in food — 1993. Joint FAO/WHO meeting on pesticide residues. Evaluations 1993, Part II — Toxicology. IPCS/International Programme on Chemical Safety. Monocrotophos, pp 333–348.Google Scholar
  95. Worthing CR, Hance RJ (1991) Monocrotophos. In: The Pesticide Manual, 9th Ed. Worthing & Hance, Brit Crop Prot Council, Farnham, UK, pp 597–598.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Skripsky
    • 1
  • Rolf Loosli
    • 1
  1. 1.Crop Protection DivisionCiba-Geigy LimitedBaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations