Advertisement

The citrus reentry problem: Research on its causes and effects, and approaches to its minimization

  • F. A. Gunther
  • Y. Iwata
  • G. E. Carman
  • C. A. Smith
Part of the Residue Reviews book series (RECT, volume 67)

Abstract

The “reentry problems” arises from agricultural workers becoming ill as a result of entering and working in a field some time after a pesticide application has been made to a crop plant. Although sulfur, with its capacity to cause eye irritations, may be claimed to have caused the first reentry problem in agriculture, the problem as currently evaluated is limited to the use of cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. The definition of the problem in the future will likely extend to other compounds and other biological effects, such as conjuntivitis and dermatitis. Table I lists the reported cases of post-treatment illnesses to farm workers in California, where most of the incidents in the United States have occurred. A few isolated incidents have been reported from some of the cotton-and tobacco-growing states in this country; there are no documented reports yet from any other country. It is evident from this table that the problem is not a new one and that it appeared hand-in-hand with the introduction of OP pesticides to agriculture. The use of OP pesticides has increased greatly and will probably continue to increase as the use of organochlorine pesticides becomes more restricted. Production and usage of OP pesticides in the United States are expected to continue at a high level for the forseeable future, even though other approaches to pest controls such as biological control techniques, pheromones, and new classes of pesticides will be added to pest-control methods. More intensive farming methods, including OP pesticides, are being introduced to many other countries, and the same problems experienced in the United States will probably be experienced by these other users. Although foods, fibers, and feedstuffs were grown successfully in the United States prior to the introduction of synthetic pesticides in the late 1940s, expectations have changed regarding both quality and quantity of agricultural production as a result of the effectiveness of chemical pest control. Increasing world population requires greater productivity and it is, therefore, unrealistic to halt the use of OP compounds as a solution to the reentry problem (task group 1974).

Keywords

Pesticide Residue Methyl Parathion Orange Tree Orchard Soil Ethyl Parathion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, J. D., Y. Iwata, and F. A. Gunther: Worker Environment Research. IV. The effect of dust derived from several soil types on the dissipation of parathion and paraoxon dislodgable residues on citrus foliage. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 15, 547 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, J. D., Y. Iwata, and F. A. Gunther: Worker Environment Research. V. Effect of soil dusts on dissipation of paraoxon dislodgable residues on citrus foliage. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. In press (1977).Google Scholar
  3. Andersen, A. A.: A sampler for respiratory health hazard assessment. Amer. Ind. Hyg. J. 27, 160 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey, J. B.: The effects of pesticide residues on farm laborers. Agrichem. Age 15, 6 (1972).Google Scholar
  5. Brown, J. H., K. M. Cook, F. G. Ney, and T. Hatch: Influence of particle size upon the retention of particulate matter in the human lung. Amer. J. Pub. Health 40, 450 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burns, J. E., and R. D. Parker: An investigation of the safety of cotton reentry after organophosphate application. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 3, 344 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cahill, W. P., B. Estesen, and G. W. Ware: Foliage residues of insecticides on cotton. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 13, 334 (1975b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. California Administrative Code, Title 3, Chapter 4, Subchapter 1, Group 2, Article 23, paragraph 2479. Revised July 1976.Google Scholar
  9. California Department of Food and Agriculture: Pesticide use report by commodity (1975).Google Scholar
  10. California Department of Industrial Relations, Division of Labor Statistics and Research: Work Injuries in California Agriculture 1970 (Oct. 1972).Google Scholar
  11. California Department of Industrial Relations, Work Injuries in California Agriculture 1974 (Feb. 1976).Google Scholar
  12. Carman, G. E.: Spraying procedure for pest control on citrus. Citrus. Ernst Häfliger, editor, Ciba-Geigy Agrochemicals Technical Monograph No. 4, pp. 28–34, Switzerland (1975).Google Scholar
  13. Carman, G. E.: Worker reentry safety. I. An overview of the reentry problem on citrus in California. Residue Reviews 62, 1 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carman, G. E., and L. R. Jeppson: Low volume application to citrus trees: Method for evaluation of spray droplet distribution. J. Econ. Entomol. 67, 397 (1974).Google Scholar
  15. Carman, G. E., W. E. Westlake, and F. A. Gunther: Potential residue problem associated with low volume sprays on citrus in California. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 8, 38 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carman, G. E., F. A. Gunther, R. C. Blinn, and R. D. Garmus: The physical fate of parathion applied to citrus. J. Econ. Entomol. 45, 767 (1952).Google Scholar
  17. Carman, G. E., W. E. Westlake, and Y. Iwata: Reduction of foliar dislodgable pesticide residues from orange trees through spraywashing with water and lime solution. Bull. Environ. Con-tam. Toxicol. 16, In press (1976a).Google Scholar
  18. Carman, G. E., Y. Iwata, and F. A. Gunther: Pesticide deposition on citrus orchard soil resulting from spray drift and runoff. In preparation (1976b).Google Scholar
  19. Chemagro Division Research Staff: Guthion® (azinphosmethyl): Organophosphorus insecticide. Residue Reviews 51, 123 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Culver, B. D.: Worker reentry safety. VI. Occupational health aspects of exposure to pesticide residues. Residue Reviews 62, 41 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Daughton, C. G., D. G. Crosby, R. L. Garnas, and D. P. H. Hsieh: Analysis of phosphorus-containing hydrolytic products of organophosphorus insecticides in water. J. Agr. Food Chem. 24, 236 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davies, J. E., M. T. Shafik, A. Barquet, C. Morgade, and J. X. Danauskas: Worker reentry safety. VII. A medical overview of reentry periods and the use of urinary alkyl phosphates in human pesticide monitoring. Residue Reviews 62, 45 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dean, B. J., and E. Thorpe: Cytogenetic studies with dichlorvos in mice and Chinese hamsters. Arch. Toxicol. 30, 39 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Durham, W. F.: The interaction of pesticides with other factors. Residue Reviews 18, 21 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Durham, W. F., and H. R. Wolfe: Measurement of the exposure of workers to pesticides. Bull. World Health Org. 26, 75 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Durham, W. F., and J. W. Elliott: Absorption and excretion of parathion by spraymen. Arch. Environ. Health 24, 381 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ebeling, W.: Analysis of the basic processes involved in the deposition, degradation, persistence, and effectiveness of pesticides. Residue Reviews 3, 35 (1963).Google Scholar
  28. Eto, M.: Organophosphorus pesticides: Organic and biological chemistry. Cleveland, Ohio: CRC Press (1974).Google Scholar
  29. Federal Register: Emergency temporary standards for exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. Vol. 38, p. 10715 (1973).Google Scholar
  30. Fest, C. and K. J. Schmidt: The chemistry of the organophosphorus pesticides. Reactivity, synthesis, mode of action, toxicology. New York: Springer-Verlag (1973).Google Scholar
  31. Gage, J. C.: The significance of blood cholinesterase activity measurements. Residue Reviews 18, 159 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gaines, T. B.: The acute toxicity of pesticides to rats. Toxicol. Applied Pharmacol. 2, 88 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gibel, W., K. Lohs, G. P. Wildner, D. Ziebarth, and R. Steiglitz: Über die Kanzerogene, hämatotoxische and hepatotoxische Wirkung pestizider organischer Phosphorverbindungen. Arch. Geschwulstforschnung 41, 311 (1973).Google Scholar
  34. Grunwell, J. R. and R. H. Erickson: Photolysis of parathion (O,O-diethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl)thiophosphate). New products. J. Agr. Food Chem. 21, 929 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gunther, F. A.: Insecticide residues in California citrus fruit and products. Residue Reviews 28, 37–38 (1969).Google Scholar
  36. Gunther, F. A., and R. C. Blinn: Analysis of insecticides and acaricides. New York: Interscience (1955).Google Scholar
  37. Gunther, F. A., J. H. Barkley, and W. E. Westlake: Worker Environment Research. II. Sampling and processing techniques for determining dislodgable pesticide residues on leaf surfaces. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12, 641 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gunther, F. A., G. E. Carman, and Y. Iwata: Unpublished data (1976a).Google Scholar
  39. Gunther, F. A., R. C. Blinn, and J. H. Barkley: Persistence of residues of Guthion on and in mature lemons and oranges and in laboratory processed citrus “pulp” cattle feed. J. Agr. Food Chem. 11, 424 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gunther, F. A., D. L. Elliott, and Y. Iwata: Unpublished data (1976b).Google Scholar
  41. Gunther, F. A., D. E. Ott, and M. Ittig: The oxidation ofparathion to paraoxon. II. By use of ozone. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 5, 87 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gunther, F. A., W. E. Westlake, J. H. Barkley, W. Winterlin, and L. Langbehn: Establishing dislodgable pesticide residues on leaf surfaces. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 9, 243 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gunther, F. A., W. E. Westlake, and G. E. Carman: Unpublished data (1974).Google Scholar
  44. Guthrie, F. E., J. J. Domanski, A. L. Chasson, D. E. Bradway, and R. J. Monroe: Human subject experiments to estimate reentry periods for monocrotophos-treated tobacco. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 4, 217 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Guthrie, F. E., A. R. Main, D. G. Sanders, and R. R. Monroe: Use of mice for initial approximation of reentry intervals into pesticide-treated fields. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2, 233 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hayes, W. J. Jr.: Clinical handbook on economic poisons. Emergency information for treating poisonings. U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Communicable Disease Center-Toxicology Section, Atlanta, GA. (1963).Google Scholar
  47. Ives, N. F., and L. Giuffrida: Gas-liquid chromatographic column preparation for adsorptive compounds. J. Assoc. Official Anal. Chemists 53, 973 (1970).Google Scholar
  48. Iwata, Y., W. E. Westlake, J. H. Barkley, G. E. Carman, and F. A. Gunther: Behavior of phenthoate (Cidial®) deposits and residues on and in grapefruits, lemons and lemon leaves, oranges and orange leaves, and in the soil beneath orange trees. J. Agr. Food Chem. 25, In press (1977).Google Scholar
  49. Iwata, Y., M. E. Dusch, W. E. Westlake, and F. A. Gunther: Behavior of five organophosphorus pesticides in dust derived from several soil types. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 14, 49 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Johnson, D. E., L. M. Adams, and J. D. Miller: Sensory chemical pesticide warning system: Experimental, summary, and recommendations. Environ. Protect. Agency EPA–540/9–75–029 (July 1976).Google Scholar
  51. Joiner, R. L. and K. P. Baetcke: Parathion: Persistence on cotton and identification of its photoalteration products. J. Agr. Food Chem. 21, 391 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kahn, E.: Outline guide for performance of pre-registration studies in 1975 to establish safe reentry intervals for organophosphate pesticides in California. Epidemiology Studies Laboratory. California Department of Health, May (1975a).Google Scholar
  53. Kahn, E.: Personal communication, Aug. 4 (1975b).Google Scholar
  54. Kahn, E.: Worker reentry safety. V. Reentry intervals as health standards. Residue Reviews 62, 35 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Katan, J., T. W. Fuhremann, and E. P. Lichtenstein: Binding of (’4C) parathion in soil: A reassessment of pesticide persistence. Science 193, 891 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kawar, N. S., G. C. de Batista, and F. A. Gunther: Pesticide stability in cold-stored plant parts, soils, and dairy products, and in cold-stored extractives solutions. Residue Reviews 48, 45 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ketelaar, J. A. A., H. R. Gersmann, and M. M. Beck: Metal catalyzed hydrolysis of thiophosphoric esters. Nature 177, 392 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kido, H., J. B. Bailey, N. F. McCalley, W. E. Yates, and R. E. Cowden: The effect of overhead sprinkler irrigation on methyl parathion residue on grape leaves. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 14, 209 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kolata, G. B.: Chemical carcinogens: Industry adopts controversial “quick” tests. Science 192, 1215 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kramer, J. P.: Acute parathion poisoning in an adolescent. Delaware Med. J. 44, 31 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kvalvag, J., D. E. Ott, and F. A. Gunther: Liquid chromatographic determination of azinphosmethyl-oxon in foliar dislodgable-residues and in soil surface dusts from azinphosmethyl-treated orange grove. J. Assoc. Official Anal. Chemists 60, In press (1977b)Google Scholar
  62. Kvalvag, J., D. L. Elliott, Y. Iwata, and F. A. Gunther: Comparison of analytical results obtamed by gas and high-pressure liquid chromatography of parathion and paraoxon in extracts prepared from orchard soil dust and dislodgable residues on orange leaves. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 17, In press (1977a).Google Scholar
  63. Leffingwell, J. T., R. C. Spear, and D. L. Jenkins: The persistence of ethion and Zolone residues on grape foliage in the central valley of California. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 3, 40 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lichtenstein, E. P. and K. R. Schulz: The effects of moisture and microorganisms on the persistence and metabolism of some organophosphorus insecticides in soils, with special emphasis on parathion. J. Econ. Entomol. 57, 618 (1964).Google Scholar
  65. Maddy, K. T.: Worker reentry safety. IV. The position of the California Department of Food and Agriculture on pesticide reentry safety intervals. Residue Reviews 62, 21 (1976a).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Maddy, K. T.: Current considerations on the relative importance of conducting additional studies on hazards of field worker exposure to pesticide residues as compared to studying other occupational safety hazards on the farm. Presented at the “Workshop on Pesticide Residue Hazards to Farm Workers” sponsored by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Salt Lake City, Utah, Feb. 9 and 10 (1976 b).Google Scholar
  67. Maibach, H. I., R. J. Feldmann, T. H. Milby, and W. F. Serat: Regional variation in per-cutaneous penetration in man. Arch. Environ. Health 23, 208 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. May, J. R.: Worker reentry safety. II. The viewpoint and program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Residue Reviews 62, 7 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Melnikov, N. N.: Chemistry of pesticides. Residue Reviews 36, 326 (1971).Google Scholar
  70. Milby, T. H., F. Ottoboni, and H. W. Mitchell: Parathion residue poisoning among orchard workers. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 189, 351 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mirer, F. E., K. L. Cheever, and S. D. Murphy: A comparison of gas chromatographic and anti-cholinesterase methods for measuring parathion metabolism in vitro. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 13, 745 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nabb, D. P., W. J. Stein, and W. J. Hayes: Rate of skin absorption of parathion and paraoxon. Arch. Environ. Health 12, 501 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Nigg, H. N., J. C. Allen, R. W. King, N. P. Thompson, G. J. Edwards, and R. F. Brooks: Dislodgable residues of parathion and Trithion in Florida citrus. A weather model. J. Econ. Entomol. In press (1977).Google Scholar
  74. Okamura, J. P., D. T. Sawyer, and F. A. Gunther: Solubility of parathion in orange leaf wax. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. In press (1977).Google Scholar
  75. Paynter, O. E.: Worker reentry safety. III. Viewpoint and program of the Environmental Protection Agency. Residue Reviews 62, 13 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pennwalt Corp. Technical Bulletin on Penncap-M (Micro-encapsulated) methyl parathion, Monrovia, CA.Google Scholar
  77. Popendorf, W. J., and R. C. Spear: Preliminary survey of factors affecting the exposure of harvesters to pesticide residues. Amer. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 35, 374 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Popendorf, W. J., and S. Selvin: Collecting foliar pesticide residues related to potential airborne exposure of workers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 583 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Quinby, G. E. and A. B. Lemmon: Parathion residues as a cause of poisoning in crop workers. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 166, 740 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Quinby, G. E., K. C. Walker, and W. T. Kurham: Public health hazards involved in the use of organic phosphorus insecticides in cotton culture in the delta area of Mississippi. J. Econ. Entomol. 51, 831 (1958).Google Scholar
  81. Roan, C. C., D. P. Morgan, N. Cook, and E. H. Paschal: Blood cholinesterases, serum parathion concentrations and urine p-nitrophenol concentrations in exposed individuals. Bull. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol. 4, 362 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Serat, W. F.: Calculation of a safe reentry time into an orchard treated with a pesticide chemical which produces a measurable physiological response. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1, 170 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Serat, W. F., and J. B. Bailey: Estimating the relative toxicologic potential of each pesticide in a mixture of residues on foliage. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12, 682 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Serat, W. F., and D. C. Mengle: Quality control in the measurement of blood cholinesterase activities among persons exposed to pesticides. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 9, 24 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Serat, W. F., H. P. Anderson, E. Kahn, and J. B. Bailey: On the estimation of worker entry intervals into pesticide treated fields with and without the exposure of human subjects. Bull. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol. 13, 506 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Shafik, M. T. and D. E. Bradway: Worker reentry safety. VIII. The determination of urinary metabolites—An index of human and animal exposure to nonpersistent pesticides. Residue Reviews 62, 59 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shafik, M. T., and H. F. Enos: A cleanup procedure for the determination of low levels of alkyl phosphates, thiophosphates, and dithiophosphates in rat and human urine. J. Agr. Food Chem. 19, 885 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shafik, M. T., and A. R. Yobs: Human exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. J. Agr. Food Chem. 21, 625 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Smith, C. A., and F. A. Gunther: Unpublished data (1976).Google Scholar
  90. Smith, C. A., and F. A. Gunther: A rapid field method for the semiquantitative determination of pesticide residues in soil. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. In press. (1977).Google Scholar
  91. Smith, C. A., and J. D. Adams: Worker environment research. III. A rapid method for the semiquantitative determination of some dislodgable pesticide residues on citrus foliage. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 15, 305 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Spear, R. C.: Current status of research on the reentry problem. Sixtieth annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America. Ventura, CA. June 23 (1976a).Google Scholar
  93. Spear, R. C.: Personal communication (1976b).Google Scholar
  94. Spear, R. C., D. L. Jenkins, and T. H. Milby: Pesticide residues and field workers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 308 (1975a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Spear, R. C., W. J. Popendorf, J. T. Leffingwell, and D. L. Jenkins: Parathion residues on citrus foliage. Decay and composition as related to worker hazard. J. Agr. Food Chem. 23, 808 (1975b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Spector, W. S.: Handbook of biological data. Philadelphia: Saunders (1956).Google Scholar
  97. Spencer, W. F., W. J. Farmer, and M. M. Cliath: Pesticide volatilization. Residue Reviews 49, 1 (1973).Google Scholar
  98. Spencer, W. F., and R. C. Spear: Personal communication (1976).Google Scholar
  99. Spencer, W. F., M. M. Cliath, K. R. Davis, R. C. Spear, and W. J. Popendorf: Persistence of parathion and its oxidation to paraoxon on the soil surface as related to worker reentry into treated crops. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 14, 265 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Staiff, D. C., S. W. Comer, and R. J. Foster: Residues of parathion and conversion products apple and peach foliage resulting from repeated spray applications. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 14, 135 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sumerford, W. T., W. J. Hayes, J. M. Johnston, K. Walker, and J. Spillane: Cholinesterase response and symptomology from exposure to organic phosphorus insecticides. Amer. Med. Assoc. Arch. Ind. Hyg. 7, 383 (1953).Google Scholar
  102. Task Group on Occupational Exposure to Pesticides, T. H. Milby (chairman): Occupational exposure to pesticides“, report to the Federal Working Group on Pest Management, Washington, D.C. (Jan. 1974).Google Scholar
  103. Van Dyk, L. P., and K. Visweswariah: Pesticides in air: Sampling methods. Residue Reviews. 55, 91 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Walker, W. W., and B. J. Stojanovic: Acetyl cholinesterase toxicity of malathion and its metabolites. J. Environ. Qual. 2, 474 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ware, G. W., and D. P. Morgan: Worker reentry safety. IX. Techniques of determining safe reentry intervals for organophosphate-treated cotton fields. Residue Reviews 62, 79 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ware, G. W., B. Estesen, and W. P. Cahill: Dislodgable leaf residues on cotton. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 11, 434 (1974a).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ware, G. W., B. Estesen, and W. P. Cahill: Dislodgable insecticide residues on cotton. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 14, 606 (1975b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. WareG. W., B. Estesen, and W. P. Cahill, D. P. Morgan, B. J. Estesen, and W. P. Cahill: Establishment of reentry intervals for organophosphate-treated cotton fields based on human data. II. Azodrin, ethyl and methyl parathion. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2, 117 (1974b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ware, G. W., B. Estesen, and W. P. Cahill: Establishment of reentry intervals for organophosphate-treated cotton fields based on human data: III. 12 to 72 hours post-treatment exposure to monocrotophos, ethyl-and methyl parathion. Arch Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 3, 289 (1975a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ware, G. W., B. Estesen, and W. P. Cahill, and D. M Whitacre: Establishment of reentry intervals for organophosphate-treated cotton fields based on human data: I. Ethyl-and methyl parathion. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1, 48 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Westlake, W. E., F. A. Gunther, and G. E. Carman: Worker Environment Research: Dioxathion (Delnav®) residues on and in orange fruits and leaves, in dislodgable particulate matter, and in the soil beneath sprayed trees. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1, 60 (1973a).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Westlake, W. E., F. A. Gunther, and L. R. Jeppson: Persistence of Omite residues on and in navel oranges and lemons and in laboratory-processed citrus pulp cattle feed. J. Agr. Food Chem. 19, 894 (1971a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Westlake, W. E., M. E. Düsch, F. A. Gunther, and L. R. Jeppson: Persistence of 0,0-diethyl S-(2chloro-1-phthalimidoethyl) phosphorodithioate (Torak) on and in lemons, oranges, and dried citrus pulp cattle feed, and the toxicity of residues to mites. J. Agr. Food Chem. 19, 191 (1971b).Google Scholar
  114. Westlake, W. E., M. Ittig, D. Ott, and F. A. Gunther: Persistence of residues of the insecticide phosphamidon on and in oranges, lemons, and grapefruit, and on and in orange leaves and in dried citrus pulp cattle feed. J. Agr. Food Chem. 21, 846 (1973b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wild, D.: Mutagenicity studies on organophosphorus insecticides. Mutation Res. 32, 133 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Williams, E. F.: Properties of 0,0-diethyl 0-p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate and 0,0-diethyl 0-p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Ind. Eng. Chem. 43, 950 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Williams, M. W., J. W. Cook, J. R. Blake, P. S. Jorgensen, and J. P. Frawly: The effect of parathion on human red cell and plasma cholinesterase. Amer. Med. Assoc., Arch. Ind. Health 18, 441 (1958).Google Scholar
  118. Winterlin, W., J. B. Bailey, L. Langbehn, and C. Mourer: Degradation of parathion applied to peach leaves. Pest. Monitoring J. 8, 263 (1975).Google Scholar
  119. Wolfe, H. R., J. F. Armstrong, D. C. Staiff, S. W. Comer, and W. F. Durham: Exposure of apple thinners to parathion residues. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 3, 257 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Woodham, D. W., R. G. Reeves, C. B. Williams, H. Richardson, and C. A. Bond: Residues of dimethoate and its oxygen analog on and in citrus leaves following a helicopter treatment of the trees with dimethoate ultra-low volume concentrate and high volume spray. J. Agr. Food Chem. 22, 731 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. A. Gunther
    • 1
  • Y. Iwata
    • 1
  • G. E. Carman
    • 1
  • C. A. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations