Induced Mutations — An Integrating Tool in Genetics and Plant Breeding

  • Miroslaw Maluszynski
Part of the Stadler Genetics Symposia Series book series (SGSS)


During the last few years breeders and plant geneticists have shown rekindled interest in mutation techniques as a simple tool to generate desired variability for breeding or basic research. The wide use of model plant mutants, in studies of molecular organization of genomes or of metabolic pathways, has stimulated interest to utilize these techniques in crop improvement by conventional or molecular genetic methods. During the approximately 60 years history of the use of induced mutations in plants a wide range of techniques and approaches have been developed to increase the probability of finding desirable mutants. For example, the traditional methods employing mutagenic chemicals and radiation have been supplemented by the use of in-vitro culture and transposable elements.


Anther Culture Fusaric Acid Linum Usitatissimum Mutagenic Treatment Homoeologous Pairing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abelson, P.H., 1988, World Competition in Biotechnology, Science, 240: 701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldemita, R.R., and Zapata, F.J., 1989, Anther culture of rice: effects of radiation and media components on callus induction and plant regeneration, IAEA (in press).Google Scholar
  3. Ashri, A., 1981, Increased genetic variability for sesame improvement by hybridization and induce mutations, In: Sesame: Status and Improvement, Ashri, A., ed., FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 29, Rome, pp. 141–145.Google Scholar
  4. Ashri, A., 1988, Sesame breeding: Objectives and Approaches, In: “Oil crops: Sunflower, linseed and sesame,” A. Omram, ed., IDRC-MR205e, pp. 152–165.Google Scholar
  5. Awan, M.A., 1986, Semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement in Asia and the Pacific Region–Progress report, IAEA, Vienna,: 1–5.Google Scholar
  6. Awan, M.A., Cheema, A.A., and Tahir, G.R., 1986, Induced mutations for genetic analysis in rice, In: “Rice Genetics,” IRRI, Manila, pp. 697–705.Google Scholar
  7. Bari, B., Mustafa, G., Soomro, A.M., and Baloch, A.W., 1984, Significance of semi-dwarf varieties of rice and their evolution through induced mutation, In: “Semi-dwarf cereal mutants and their use in cross-breeding II,” IAEA-TECDOC-307, Vienna, pp. 219–224.Google Scholar
  8. Bates, G.W., Hasenkampf, C.A., Contolini, C.L., and Piastuch, W.C., 1987, Asymmetric hybridization in Nicotiana by fusion of irradiated protoplasts, Theor. Appl. Genet., 74: 718–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baenziger, P.S., Peterson, C.J., Morris, M.R., Mattern, P.J., 1989, Quantifying gametoclonal variation in wheat doubled haploids, In: “Current Options for Cereal Improvement,” M. Maluszynski, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beversdorf, W.D., and Kott, L.S., 1987, An in vitro mutagenesis/ selection system for Brassica napus, Iowa State Journal of Research, 61 (4): 435–443.Google Scholar
  11. Bird, R. McK., and Neuffer, M.G., 1987, Induced mutations in maize, Plant Breeding Reviews, 5: 139–180.Google Scholar
  12. Bowman, J.L., Yanofsky, F., and Meyerowitz, E.M., 1988, Arabidopsis thaliana: A review, Oxford Surveys of Plant Molec. and Cell Bio., 5: 57–87.Google Scholar
  13. Ceoloni, C., Del Signore, G., Bitti, O., 1989, Use of high pairing wheat mutants for the transfer of useful traits from alien species into cultivated wheats, In: “Current options for cereal improvement,” M. Maluszynski, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 19–30.Google Scholar
  14. Ceoloni, C., 1988, Transfer of alien genes into cultivated wheat and triticale genotypes by the use of homoeologous pairing mutants, In: “Semi-dwarf cereal mutants and their use in cross-breeding III,” IAEA-TECDOC 455, Vienna, pp. 165–176.Google Scholar
  15. Chaleff, R.S., and Ray, T.B., 1984, Herbicide-resistant mutants from tobacco cell cultures, Science, 223: 1145–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chaudhry, M.A., Yoshida, S., and Vergara, B.S., 1987, Induced variability for salt tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) after N-methyl-N-nitrosaurea treatment of fertilized egg cells, Environ. and Exp. Bot., 27 (1): 29–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cheema, A.A., and Awan, M.A., 1985, Linkage and inheritance studies of heading date and plant height in induced mutants of rice, Egypt. J. Genet. Cytol., 15: 307–312.Google Scholar
  18. Cherney, J.H., Axtell, J.D., Hassen, M.M., and Anliker, K.S., 1988, Forage quality characterization of a chemically induced brown-midrib mutant in pearl millet, Crop. Sci., 28: 783–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Colenbrander,V.F., Lechtenberg, V.L., and Bauman, L.F., 1973, Digestibility and feeding value of brown midrib corn stover silage, J. Anim. Sci., 37: 294–295.Google Scholar
  20. Dalrymple, D.G., 1986, Development and spread of high-yielding wheat varieties in developing countries, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., pp. 1–99.Google Scholar
  21. Dolferus, R., and Jacobs, M., 1984, Polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.: genetical and biochemical characterization, Biochem. Genet., 22: 817–838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dolferus, R., and Jacobs, M., 1987, Characterization of the Arabidopsis ADH gene and analysis of EMS induced ADH-null mutants, Third Inter. Meeting on Arabidopsis, MSU, Abstract No. 108.Google Scholar
  23. Gale, M.D., 1987, Project Proposal, IAEA, Vienna.Google Scholar
  24. Gale, M.D., and Miller, T.E., 1987, The introduction of alien genetic variation in wheat, In: “Wheat Breeding,” F.G.H. Lupton, ed., Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 173–210.Google Scholar
  25. Giorgi, B., 1978, A homoeologous-pairing mutant isolated in Triticum durum cv. Cappelli, Mut. Breed. Newsl., 11: 4–5.Google Scholar
  26. Giorgi, B., and Ceoloni, C., 1985, A phl hexaploid triticale: production, cytogenetic behaviour and use for intergeneric gene transfer, In: “Proc. Eucarpia Meeting: Genetics and breeding of triticale,” pp. 105–117.Google Scholar
  27. Gleba, Y.Y., Hinnisdaels, S., Sidorov, V.A., Kaleta, V.A., Parokonny, A.S., Boryshuk, N.V., Cherep, N.N., Negrutiu, I., and Jacobs, M., 1988, Intergeneric asymmetric hybrids between Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Atropa belladonna obtained by “gamma-fusion”, Theor. Appl. Genet., 76: 760–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Green, A.G., 1986, Genetic control of polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed oil, Theor. Appl. Genet., 72: 654–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Green, A.G., and Marshall, D.R., 1984, Isolation of induced mutants in linseed (Linum usitatissimum) having reduced linolenic acid content, Euphytica, 33: 321–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haughn, G.W., Somerville, C.R., 1987, An Arabidopsis acetolactate synthase gene in tobacco confers resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, Third Inter. Meeting on Arabidopsis, MSU, Abstract No. 42.Google Scholar
  31. Hoyt, E., 1988, Conserving the wild relatives of crops, IBPGR, IUCN, WWF, Rome, pp. 45.Google Scholar
  32. Hu, C.H., 1987, Modernization and diversification of rice varieties in California and a new semi-dwarf mutant of possible economic use, In: “Crop exploration and utilization of genetic resources,” Sung-Ching Hsieh, ed., Taiwan Provincial Taichung District, Agricultural Improvement Station, pp. 77–90.Google Scholar
  33. Jacobsen, P., 1966, Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment, Radiation Bot., 6: 313–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jefferson, R.A., 1987, Assaying chimeric genes in plants: The GUS gene fusion system, Plant Molec. Bio. Reporter, 5 (4): 387–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jefferson, R.A., 1989, The GUS gene fusion system as a versatile new tool for agricultural molecular biology, IAEA, (in press).Google Scholar
  36. Khan, S.I.M., Chaudhry, B.M., Aslam, M., and Bandesha,A.A., 1982, Mutation breeding of cotton, Mutation Breeding Newsletter, 20: 11–12.Google Scholar
  37. Kilian, A. and Gale, M.D., 1989, RFLP mapping in cereals and the production of induced RFLPs for use in breeding, IAEA, (in preparation).Google Scholar
  38. Kirby, E.J.M. and Appleyard, M., 1987, Development and structure of the wheat plant, In: “Wheat Breeding,” F.G.H. Lupton, ed., Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 287–311.Google Scholar
  39. Koduru, P.R.K., and Rao, M.K., 1981, Cytogenetics of synaptic mutants in higher plants, Theor. Appl. Genet., 59: 197–214.Google Scholar
  40. Konzak, C.F., 1984, Role of induced mutations, In: Crop Breeding, a Contemporary Basis, P.B. Vose and S.G. Blixt, ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 216–292.Google Scholar
  41. Konzak, C.F., 1988, Genetic analysis, genetic improvement and evaluation of induced semi-dwarf mutants in wheat, In: “Semi-dwarf cereal mutants and their use in cross-breeding III,” IAEA-TECDOC-455, Vienna, pp. 77–94.Google Scholar
  42. Koornneef, M., 1987, Linkage map of Arabidopsis thaliana (2n-10), In: “Genetic maps 1987: A compilation of linkage and restriction maps of genetically studied organisms,” S.J. O’Brien, ed., CSH, pp. 742–745.Google Scholar
  43. Lalonde, B.A., and Fink, G.R., 1987, Analysis of histidine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, Third Inter. Meeting on Arabidopsis, MSU, Abstract No. 109.Google Scholar
  44. Last, R.L., and Fink, G.R., 1988, Tryptophan-requiring mutants of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, Science, 240: 305–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Law, C.N., Snape, J.W., and Worland, A.J., 1987, Aneuploidy in wheat and its uses in genetic analysis, In: “Wheat Breeding,” F.G.H. Lupton, ed., Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 109–128.Google Scholar
  46. Maluszynski, M., 1982, The high mutagenic effectiveness of MNUA in inducing a diversity of dwarf and semi-dwarf forms of spring barley, Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 51: 429: 440.Google Scholar
  47. Maluszynski, M., Micke, A., and Donini, B., 1986, Genes for semi-dwarfism in rice induced by mutagenesis, In: “Rice Genetics,” IRRI, Manila, pp. 729–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Maluszynski, M., Sigurbjörnsson, B., Micke, A., 1988, Gene manipulation by mutation techniques, IAEA-TECDOC-455, Vienna, pp. 19–30.Google Scholar
  49. Maluszynski, M., Szarejko, I., Madajewski, R., Fuglewicz, A., Kucharska, M., 1988, Semi-dwarf mutants and heterosis in barley. I. The use of barley sd-mutants for hybrid breeding, IAEA-TECDOC-455, Vienna pp. 193–206.Google Scholar
  50. Meinke, D.W., 1986, Embryo-lethal mutants and the study of plant embryo development, Oxford Surveys of Plant Molecular. and Cell Biology, 3: 122–165.Google Scholar
  51. Menczel, L., Galiba, G., Nagy, F., Maliga, P., 1982, Effect of radiation dosage on efficiency of chloroplast transfer by protoplast fusion in Nicotiana, Genetics, 100: 487–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Meredith, C.P., 1984, Selection better crops from cultured cells, In: “Gene manipulation in plant improvement,” J.P. Gustafson, ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 503–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Micke, A., Maluszynski, M., Donini, B., 1985, Plant cultivars derived from mutation induction or the use of induced mutants in cross breeding, Mutation Breeding Review, 3, IAEA, Vienna.Google Scholar
  54. Micke, A., Donini, B., and Maluszynski, M., 1987, Induced mutations for crop improvement - a review, Trop. Agric. (Trinidad), 64: 259–278.Google Scholar
  55. Min, S., Wang, C., Wang, G., Xiong, Z. and Qi, X., 1989, Rice improvement (involving altered flower structure more suitable to cross-pollination) using in vitro techniques in combination with mutagenesis, In: “Current Options for Cereal Improvement,” M. Maluszynski, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mullenax, R.H., and Osborne, T.S., 1966, Normal and gamma-rayed resting plumule of barley, Radiation Bot., 7: 273–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Müller, A.J., 1963, Embryonentest zum Nachweis rezessiver Letalfaktoren bei Arabidopsis thaliana, Biol. Zentralbi., 82: 133–163.Google Scholar
  58. NIAB, 1988, Successful application of nuclear techniques for the improvement of cotton crop and role of NIAB-78 in cotton production, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  59. Nichterlein, K., Marquard, R., and Friedt, W., 1988, Breeding for modified fatty acid composition by induced mutations in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.), Plant Breeding, 101: 190–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Novak, F.J., Daskalov, S., Brunner, H., Nesticky, M., Afza, R., Dolezelova, M., Lucretti, S., Herichova, A., and Hermelin, T., 1988, Somatic embryogenesis in maize and comparison of genetic variability induced by gamma radiation and tissue culture techniques, Plant Breeding, 101: 66–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Neuffer, M.G. and Chang, M.T., 1989, Induced mutations in biological and agronomic research, In: Proc. XIIth Eucarpia Congress, (1989), Göttingen, (in press).Google Scholar
  62. Plucknett, D.L., Smith, N.J.H., Williams, J.T., and Anishetty, N.M., 1987, “Gene banks and the world’s food,” Princeton University Press, Princeton N.J.Google Scholar
  63. Porter, K.S., Axtell, J.D., Lechtenberg, V.L., and Colenbrander, V.F., 1978, Phenotype, fiber composition and in-vitro dry matter disappearance of chemically induced brown midrib (bmr) mutants of sorghum, Crop. Sci., 18: 205–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Reddy, S.S., and Kumar, S., 1988, Selectable genetic markers in higher plants, Indian J. Exp. Biol., 26: 567–582.Google Scholar
  65. Reddy, T.P., Vaidyanath, K., and Reddy, G.M., 1986, Evaluation and genetic analysis of semi-dwarf mutants in indica rice, Progress report, IAEA, Vienna, pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  66. Redei, G.P., 1962, Supervital mutants of Arabidopsis, Genetics, 47: 443–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Rick, C.M., 1986a, Tomato mutants: freaks, anomalies and breeders’s resources, Hort. Science, 21 (4): 918–919.Google Scholar
  68. Rick, C.M., 1986b, New mutant at the sp locus, TGC Report, 36: 33.Google Scholar
  69. Rines, H.W., and Johnson, S.S., 1988, Synaptic mutants in hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.), Genome, 30: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Röbbelen, G., and Nitsch, A., 1975, Genetical and physiological investigations on mutants for polyenoic fatty acids in rape seed, Brassica napus L. 1. Selection and description of new mutants. Z. Pflanzenzücht., 75: 93–105.Google Scholar
  71. Rutger, J.N., Azzini, L.E., and Brookhouzen, P.J., 1986, Inheritance of semi-dwarf and other useful mutant genes in rice, In: “Rice Genetics,” IRRI, Manila, pp. 261–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Scarth, R., McVetty, P.B.E., Rimmer, S.R., and Stefansson, B.R., 1988, Stellar low linolenic-high linoleic acid summer rape, Can. J. Plant Sci., 68: 509–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sears, E.R., 1977, An induced mutant with homoeologous pairing in common wheat, Can. J. Genet. Cytol., 19: 585–593.Google Scholar
  74. Sears, E.R., 1982, A wheat mutation conditioning an intermediate level of homoeologous chromosome pairing, Can. J. Genet. Cytol., 24: 715–719.Google Scholar
  75. Sears, E.R., 1984, Mutations in wheat that raise the level of meiotic chromosome pairing, In: “Gene manipulation in plant improvement,” J.P. Gustafson, ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 295–300.Google Scholar
  76. Sebastian, S.A., and Chaleff, R.S., 1987, Soybean mutants with increased tolerance for sulfonylurea herbicides, Crop Sci., 27: 948–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sheridan, W.F., and Neuffer, M.G., 1980, Defective kernel mutants of maize. II. Morphological and embryo culture studies, Genetics, 95: 945–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Shintaku, Y., Yamamoto, K., and Nakajima, T., 1988, Interspecific hybridization between Nicotiana repanda Willd. and N. tabaccum L. through the pollen irradiation technique and the egg cell irradiation technique, Theor. Appl. Genet., 76: 293–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sidorov, V.A., Zubko, M.K., Kuchko, A.A., Komarnitsky, I.K., and Gleba, Y.Y., 1987, Somatic hybridization in potato: use of gamma-irradiated protoplasts of Solanum pinnatisectum in genetic reconstruction, Theor. Appl. Genet., 74: 364–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sigurbjörnsson, B., 1983, Induced mutations, In: “Crop Breeding,” D.R. Wood, ed., American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 153–176.Google Scholar
  81. Singh, M.P., and Sinha, P.K., 1986, Induced mutagenesis in native rices, In: “Rice Genetics,” IRRI, Manila, pp. 719–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Stadler, L.J., 1930, Some genetic effects of X-rays in plants, J. of Heredity, 30: 3–19.Google Scholar
  83. Swaminathan, M.S., 1986, Integration of the tools of mendelian and molecular genetics in crop improvement, Indian J. Genet., 46 (Suppl.): 12–29.Google Scholar
  84. Swanson, E.B., Coumans, M.P., Brown, G.L., Patel, J.D., and Beversdorf, W.D., 1988, The characterization of herbicide tolerant plants in Brassica napus L. after in vitro selection of microspores and protoplasts, Plant Cell Reports, 7: 83–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Takahashi, R., Hayashi, J., Inoue, T., Moriya, I., and Hirao, C., 1973, Studies on resistance to yellow mosaic disease in barley, I. Tests for varietal reactions and genetic analysis of resistance to the diseases, Ber. Ohara Inst. Landw. Biol., Okayama Univ., 16: 1–17Google Scholar
  86. Thomzik, J.E., and Hain, R., 1988, Transfer and segregation of triazine tolerant chloroplasts in Brassica napus L., Theor. Appl. Genet., 76: 165–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Toyoda, H., Hashimoto, H., Utsumi, R., Kobayashi, H., and Ouchi, S., 1988, Detoxification of fusaric acid by a fusaric acid-resistant mutant of Pseudomonas solanacearum and its application to biological control of fusarium wilt of tomato, Phytopathology, 78 (10): 1307–1311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ukai, Y., and Yamashita, A., 1987, Induced mutants highly resistant to barley yellow mosaic virus, in: “Barley Genetics V,” S. Yasuda and T. Konishi, eds., Okayama, pp. 279–286.Google Scholar
  89. Wall, A.M., Riley, R., and Chapman, V., 1971, Wheat mutants permitting homoeologous meiotic chromosome pairing, Genet. Res., 18: 311–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wang, A.S., Cheng, D.S.K., Milcic, J.B., and Yang, T.C., 1988, Effect of X-ray irradiation on maize inbred line B73 tissue cultures and regenerated plants, Crop. Sci., 28: 358–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wilcox, J.R., Cavins, J.F., Nielsen, N.C., 1984, Genetic alteration of soybean oil composition by a chemical mutagen, J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc., 61: 97–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zapata, F.J., and Aldemita, R.R., 1989, Induction of salt tolerance in high-yielding rice varieties through mutagenesis and anther culture In: “Current Options for Cereal Improvement,” M. Maluszynski, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 193–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miroslaw Maluszynski
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Joint FAO/IAEA DivisionPlant Breeding and Genetics SectionKatowicePoland
  2. 2.Department of GeneticsSilesian UniversityKatowicePoland

Personalised recommendations