Advertisement

RFLP Mapping in Wheat — Progress and Problems

  • Michael D. Gale
  • Shiaoman Chao
  • Peter J. Sharp
Part of the Stadler Genetics Symposia Series book series (SGSS)

Abstract

The genetic linkage map of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell., 2n = 6x = 42) has always been less well developed than those of diploid cereals such as maize (Zea mays L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Progress in wheat has been hindered by several problems inherent in it being an inbreeding hexaploid species of recent origin. Most importantly, recessive mutations such as morphological and pigment variants, male steriles and lethals, which comprise the backbone of genetic maps in diploid plants have not often been available to wheat geneticists. Although a few have been recognised, and presumably many have been generated in mutation studies, their phenotypic expression is usually masked by effective alleles at the homoeoloci in the other two genomes. In addition, linkages between the few recessive mutations obtained are rare, as wheat has a relatively large number of linkage groups, having 21 pairs of chromosomes. Moreover, naturally occurring variation between varieties as measured at conventional biochemical marker loci appears to be less common in wheat than in many other crops. This is as expected in an inbreeding species that may have arisen from a single entirely homozygous spontaneously doubled tri-haploid only some 10,000 years ago.

Keywords

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Hexaploid Wheat Wheat Genome Homoeologous Group Chiasma Frequency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ainsworth, C.C., Gale, M.D. and Baird, S. (1983). The genetics of β-amylase isozymes in wheat. I Allelic variation among hexaploid varieties and intrachromosomal gene locations. Theor. Appl. Genet. 66, 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burr, B., Evola, S.V., Burr, F., and Beckmann, J.S., 1983, The application of restriction fragment length polymorphisms to plant breeding, Genet. Engineering, 5: 45–59.Google Scholar
  3. Chao, S., Sharp, P.J., Worland, A.J., Warham, E.J., Koebner, R.M.D., and Gale, M.D., 1989, RFLP based genetic maps of wheat homoeologous group 7 chromosomes, Theor. Appl. Genet., in pressGoogle Scholar
  4. Driscoll, C.J., and Sears, E.R., 1971. Individual addition of the chromosomes of “Imperial” rye to wheat, Agron. Abstr. p 6.Google Scholar
  5. Dvorak, J., and Chen, K-C., 1984, Distribution of non-structural variation between wheat cultivars along chromosome arm 6Bp: evidence from the linkage map and physical map of the arm, Genetics, 106: 325–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Flavell, R.B., Bennett, M.D., Seal, A.G., and Hutchinson, J., 1987. Chromosome structure and organisation, in: “Wheat breeding–its scientific basis”, F.G.H. Lupton, ed., Chapman and Hall, London, pp 211–268.Google Scholar
  7. Gale, M.D., Law, C.N., Chojecki, A.J. and Kempton, R.A. (1983). Genetic control of a-amylase production in wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 64, 309–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gale, M.D., Sharp, P.J., Chao, S., and Law, C.N., 1989, Applications of genetic markers in cytogenetic manipulations of the wheat genomes, Genome, 31: in press.Google Scholar
  9. Helentjaris, T., Slocum, M., Wright, S., Schaefer, A., and Nienhuis, J., 1986, Construction of genetic linkage maps in maize and tomato using restriction fragment length polymorphisms, Theor. Appl. Genet., 72: 761–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huskins, C.L., 1931, A cytological study of Vilmorins’ unfixable dwarf wheat, J. Genet., 25: 113–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Islam, A.K.M.R., Shepherd, K.W., and Sparrow, D.H.B., 1981, Isolation and characterization of euplasmic wheat-barley addition lines, Heredity 46: 161–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kilian, A., Chao, S., Sharp, P.J., Kleinhofs, A., and Gale, M.D., 1989. An RFLP map of barley chromosome 1 (7H), (in preparation).Google Scholar
  13. Kimber, G., 1967, The addition of the chromosomes of Aegilops umbellulata into Triticum aestivum (var. Chinese Spring), Genet. Res., 9: 111–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kleinhofs, A., Chao, S., and Sharp, P.J., 1988, Mapping of nitrate reductase genes in barley and wheat, in: “Proc. 7th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp.” T.E. Miller, and R.M.D. Koebner, eds., pp 541–546, IPSR, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  15. Kobrehel, K., and Feillet, P., 1975, Identification of genomes and chromosomes involved in peroxidase synthesis of wheat seeds, Can.,I. Bot., 53: 2336–2344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koebner, R.M.D., Miller, T.E., Snape, J.W. and Law, C.N. (1988). Wheat endopeptidase: genetic control, polymorphism, intrachromosomal location and alien variation. Genome 30, 186–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Landry, B.S., Kesseli, R., Leung, H., and Michelmore, R.W., 1987, Comparisons of restriction endonucleases and sources of probes for their efficiency in detecting restriction fragment length polymorphisms in lettuce (Lactuca iadyji L.), Theor. Appt. Genet., 74: 646–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Law, C.N. (1971). 7B linkage group. Plant Breeding Inst. Ann. Rep. 1970, pp 89.Google Scholar
  19. Maia, N., 1967, Obtention de bles tendres resistants au pietin-verse (Cercosporella herpotrichoides) par croisments interspecifiques, C.R. Acad. Agric. France, 53: 149–154.Google Scholar
  20. McIntosh, R.A., 1988, Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat, in: “Proc. 7th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp.”, T.E. Miller and R.M.D. Koebner, eds., pp 1225–1323, IPSR, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  21. McCouch, S.R., Kochert, G., Yu, Z.H., Wang, Z.Y., Khush, G.S. Coffman, W.R., and Tanksley, S.D., 1988, Molecular mapping of rice chromosomes, Theor. Appl. Genet. 76: 815–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Miller, T.E., 1987, Systematics and evolution, in: “Wheat breeding–its scientific basis”, F.G.H. Lupton, ed., pp 1–30, Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  23. Miller, T.E., and Reader, S.M., 1987, A guide to the homoeology of chromosomes within the Triticeae, Theor. Appl. Genet., 74: 214–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Naranjo, T., Roco, A., Goicoechea, P.G. and Giraldez, R., 1987, Arm homoeology of wheat and rye chromosomes, Genome, 29: 873–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Parker, J.S., 1987, Increased chiasma frequency as a result of chromosome rearrangement, Heredity, 58: 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Parker, J.S., Palmer, R.W., Whiteborn, M.A.F., and Edger, L.A., 1982, Chiasma frequency effects of structural chromosome change, Chromosome, 85: 673–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sallee, P.J., and Kimber, G., 1979, An analysis of the pairing of wheat telocentric chromosomes, in “Proc. 5th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp.”, S. Ramanujam, ed., pp 408–419, Indian. Soc. Genetics and Plant Breeding, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  28. Schlegel, G., and Schlegel, R., 1989, A compendium of reciprocal intervarietal translocations in hexaploid wheat. Die Kulturpflanze 37: (in press).Google Scholar
  29. Sears, E.R., 1954, The aneuploids of common wheat, Missouri Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull., 572: 1–58.Google Scholar
  30. Sharp, P.J., Chao, S., Desai, S. and Gale, M.D., 1989, The isolation characterisation and application in the Triticeae of a set of 14 wheat RFLP probes identifying each homoeologous chromosome arm, Theor. Appl. Genet., (in press).Google Scholar
  31. Sharp, P.J., Desai, S. and Gale, M.D. (1988). Isozyme and DNA polymorphism at the p-amylase loci in wheat. Theor. Appt. Genet. 26: 691–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Snape, J.W., Flavell, R.B., O’Dell, M., Hughes, W.G., Payne, P.I., 1985, Intrachromosomal mapping of the nucleolus organiser region relative to three marker loci on chromosome 1B of wheat (Triticum aestivum), Theor. Appt. Genet., 69: 263–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael D. Gale
    • 1
  • Shiaoman Chao
    • 1
  • Peter J. Sharp
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Plant Science ResearchCambridge LaboratoryTrumpington, CambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations