Jaundice of Systemic Infection

  • Charles O. Abernathy
  • J. Thomas Stocker
  • Riccardo Utili
  • Leonard B. Seeff


A variety of infectious diseases may produce jaundice or other biochemical abnormalities, even though the liver is not the primary site of infection.1–3 Despite the often serious nature of the infection or underlying disease process, the hepatic aspects are generally not life-threatening. However, the assorted liver aspects can mimic extrahepatic obstructive jaundice, making it important to identify the source of the hepatic dysfunction using such imaging techniques as ultrasonography or computed tomography (CT) or performing the appropriate Cholangiographic procedures.4


Typhoid Fever Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Toxic Shock Syndrome Rift Valley Fever Serum Bile Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Klatskin G: Hepatitis associated with systemic infection, in Schiff L (ed): Diseases of the Liver, 4th ed. JB Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1975, pp. 711–754.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zimmerman HJ, Fang M, Utili R, et al: Jaundice due to bacterial infection. Gastroenterology 77:362–374, 1979.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lewis JH, Zimmerman HJ: Bacterial infection as a cause of jaundice. Intern Med Spec Gastroenterol 5:94–113, 1984.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Scharschmidt, BF, Goldberg, HI, Schmid R: Approach to the patient with cholestatic jaundice. S Engl J Med 308:1515–1519, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bernstein J, Brown AK: Sepsis and jaundice in early infancy. Pediatrics 29:873–882, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hamilton JR, Sass-Kortsak S: Jaundice associated with severe bacterial infection in young infants. J Pediatr 63:121–132, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Danks DM, Campbell PE, Connelly JF: An aetiological study of neonatal jaundice in a children’s hospital. Aust Paediatr J 1:193–201, 1965.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kenny JF, Medearis DN, Kleyn S, et al: An outbreak of urinary tract infections and septicemia due to Escherichia coli in male infants. J Pediatr 68:530–541, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arthur AB, Wilson BDR: Urinary infection presenting with jaundice. Br Med J 1:539–540, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Seeler RA, Hahn S: Jaundice in urinary tract infection in infancy. Am J Dis Child 118:553–558, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rooney JC, Hill DJ, Danks DM: Jaundice associated with bacterial infection in the newborn. Am J Dis Child 122:39–41, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ng SH, Rawstron JR: Urinary tract infections presenting with jaundice. Arch Dis Child 46:173–176, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Borges MAG, DeBrito T, Borges JMG: Hepatic manifestations in bacterial infections of infants and children. Clinical features, biochemical data and morphologic hepatic changes (histological and ultrastructural). Acta Hepatogastroenterol 19:328–344, 1972.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Escobedo MB, Barton LL, Marshall RE, et al: The frequency of jaundice in neonatal bacterial infections. Clin Pediatr 13:656–657, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kunzer W Jr, Niederhoff H, Sutor AH, et al: Cholestatic icterus and “shock liver” resulting from disseminated intravascular coagulation in newborn and babies. Klin Paediatr 192:254–263, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Naveh Y, Friedman A: Urinary tract infection presenting with jaundice. Pediatrics 62:524–525, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fahrlander H, Huber F, Gloor F: Intrahepatic retention of bile in severe bacterial infections. Gastroenterology 47:590–599, 1964.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eley A, Hargreaves T, Lambert HP: Jaundice in severe infections. Br Med J 2:75–77, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Miller DF, Irvine RW: Jaundice in acute appendicitis. Lancet 1:321–323, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vermillon SE, Gregg JA, Baggenstoss AH, et al: Jaundice associated with bacteremia. Arch Intern Med 124:611–618, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miller DJ, Keeton GR, Webber BL, et al: Jaundice in severe bacterial infection. Gastroenterology 71:94–97, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Franson TR, Hierholzer WJ, LaBrecque DR: Frequency and characteristics of hyperbilirubinemia associated with bacteremia. Rev Infect Dis 7:1–9, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Holmes KK, Counts GW, Beaty HN: Disseminated gonococcal infection. Ann Intern Med 74:979–993, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zimmerman HJ: Hepatotoxicity: The Adverse Effects of Drugs and Other Chemicals on the Liver. Appleton & Lange, East Norwalk, Connecticut, 1978.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Trimble C: Gonococcal perihepatitis simulating acute cholecystitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 130:54–56, 1970.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kimball MW, Knee S: Gonococcal perihepatitis in a male. The Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. S Engl J Med 282:1082–1084, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    McLain LG, Decker M, Nye D, et al: Gonococcal perihepatitis in a female adolescent. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. JAMA 239:339–340, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Monges A, Tronconi JC, Legre M, et al: L’Ictere satellite des infections urinaires gravidiques. Med Chir Dig 2:345–350, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Banks JG, Foulis AK, Ledingham IMcA, et al: Liver function in septic shock. J Clin Pathol 35:1249–1252, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lefkowitch JH: Bile ductular cholestasis: An ominous histopathologic sign related to sepsis and “cholangitis lenta.” Hum Pathol 13:19–24, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Utili R, Abernathy CO, Zimmerman HJ: Cholestatic effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin on the isolated perfused rat liver. Gastroenterology 70:248–253, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Utili R, Abernathy CO, Zimmerman HJ: Studies on the effects of E. coli endotoxin on canalicular bile formation in the isolated perfused rat liver. J Lab Clin Med 89:471–482, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Utili R, Abernathy CO, Aron SA, et al: In vivo effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin on sul-fobromophthalein clearance in the guinea pig. Experientia 33:1631–1632, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Boelsterli U, Abernathy CO, Balazs T, et al: Effects of endotoxin tolerance on hepatic excretory function: In vivo study. Toxicol Lett 11:207–212, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Utili R, Abernathy CO, Zimmerman HJ: Effects of Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin on the excretory function of the isolated perfused rat liver. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 155:184–188, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Watkins JB, Ingall D, Szczepanik P, et al: Bile-salt metabolism in the newborn. Measurement of pool size and synthesis by stable isotope technic. S Engl J Med 288:431–434, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Watkins JB, Szczepanik P, Gould JB, et al: Bile-salt metabolism in the human premature infant. Preliminary observations of pool size and synthesis rate following prenatal administration of dexamethasone and phenobarbital. Gastroenterology 69:706–713, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stuart BM, Pullen RL: Typhoid: Clinical analysis of 360 cases. Arch Intern Med 78:629–661, 1946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ramachandran S, Godfrey JJ, Perera MVF: Typhoid hepatitis. JAMA 230:236–240, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    DeBrito T, Trench-Vieira W, Diagostino-Dias M: Jaundice in typhoid hepatitis. A light and electron microscopy study based on liver biopsies. Acta Hepatogastroenterol 24:426–433, 1977.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mallory FB: A histological study of typhoid fever. J Exp Med 3:139–151, 1975.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nolan JP: Bacteria and the liver. S Engl J Med 299:1069–1071, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wolff SM: Biological effects of bacterial endotoxins in man, in Kass EH, Wolff SM (eds): Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1973, pp. 251–256.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gunnar RM, Loeb HS, Winslow EJ, et al: Hemodynamic measurements in bacteremia and septic shock in man, in Kass EH, Wolff SM (eds): Bacterial Lipopoly saccharides. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1973, pp. 287–290.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Butler T, Bell WR, Levin J, et al: Typhoid fever: Studies of blood coagulation, bacteremia, and endotox-emia. Arch Intern Med 138:407–410, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Adinolfi LE, Utili R, Gaeta GB, et al: Presence of endotoxemia and its relationship to liver dysfunction in patients with typhoid fever. Infection 15:359–362, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Calva JJ, Ruiz-Palacios GM: Salmonella hepatitis: Detection of Salmonella antigens in the liver of patients with typhoid fever. J Infect Dis 154:373–374, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Meals RA: Paratyphoid fever: A report of 62 cases with several unusual findings and a review of the literature. Arch Intern Med 136:1422–1428, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fraser DW, Tsai TR, Orenstein W, et al: Legionnaires’ disease: Description of an epidemic of pneumonia. S Engl J Med 297:1189–1197, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kirby BD, Snyder KM, Meyer RD, et al: Legionnaires’ disease: Clinical features of 24 cases. Ann Intern Med 89:297–309, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Watts JC, Hicklin MD, Thomason BM, et al: Fatal pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 3: Demonstration of the bacilli in extrathoracic organs. Ann Intern Med 92:186–188, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zimmerman HJ, Thomas LJ: The liver in pneumonoccal pneumonia: Observations in 94 cases on liver function and jaundice in pneumonia. J Lab Clin Med 35:556–567, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mekel RCPM, Theron JJ, Simson IW: Pneumonia with jaundice in the Bantu. Proc Third World Cong Gastroenterol 3:283, 1967.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tugswell P, Williams O: Jaundice associated with lobar pneumonia. Q J Med 66:97–118, 1977.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Parent MA: G-6 PD deficiency in jaundice associated with lobar pneumonia. Lancet 2:155, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Radford AJ, Rhodes FA, Matz LR: The association of jaundice with lobar pneumonia in the territory of Papua and New Guinea. Med J Aust 2:678–681, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Theron JJ, Pepler WJ, Mekel RCPM: Ultrastructure of the liver in Bantu patients with pneumonia and jaundice. J Pathol 106:113–117, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tuazon CU, Cardella TA, Sheagren JN: Staphylococcal endocarditis in drug users. Clinical and microbiologic aspects. Arch Intern Med 135:1555–1561, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shands KN, Schmid GP, Dan BB, et al: Toxic-shock syndrome in menstruating women. Association with tampon use and Staphylococcus aureus and clinical features in 52 cases. S Engl J Med 303:1436–1442, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gourley GR, Chesney PJ, Davis JP, et al: Acute cholestasis in patients with toxic-shock syndrome. Gastroenterology 81:928–931, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Todd J, Fishaut M, Kapral F, et al: Toxic-shock syndrome associated with phage-group-1 staphylococci. Lancet 2:1116–1118, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Davis JP, Chesney PJ, Wand PJ, et al: Toxic-shock syndrome. Epidemiologic features, recurrence, risk factors, and prevention. S Engl J Med 303:1429–1435, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    MacDonald KL, Osterholm MT, Hedberg CW, et al: Toxic shock syndrome. A newly recognized complication of influenza and influenzalike illness. JAMA 257:1053–1058, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sperber SJ, Francis JB: Toxic shock syndrome during an influenza outbreak. JAMA 257:1086–1087, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ishak KG, Rogers WA: Cryptogenic acute cholangitis—Association with toxic shock syndrome. Am J Clin Pathol 76:619–626, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fishbein WN: Jaundice as an early manifestation of scarlet fever. Report of three cases in adults and review of the literature. Ann Intern Med 57:60–72, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pyrtek LJ, Bartus SH: Clostridium welchii septicaemia following cholecystectomy. S Engl J Med 266:689–693, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bennett JM, Healey PJM: Spherocytic hemolytic anemia and acute cholecystitis caused by Clostridium welchii. S Engl J Med 268:1070–1072, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Clancy MT, O’Briain S: Fatal Clostridium welchii septicaemia following acute cholecystitis. Br J Surg 62:518–519, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    de Gier J, de Haas GH, van Deenen LLM: Action of phospholipases from Clostridium welchii and Bacillus coreus on red-cell membranes. Biochem J 81:33P–34P, 1961.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Brown JR: Human actinomycosis. A study of 181 subjects. Hum Pathol 4:319–330, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Golematis B, Hatzitheofilou C, Melissas J: Liver actinomycosis. Am J Gastroenterol 67:148–150, 1977.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chandarlapaty SKC, Dusol M, Edwards R, et al: 67 Gallium accumulation in hepatic actinomycosis. Gastroenterology 69:752–755, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hornsey JT, Schwartzmann SW, Galambos JT: Shigella hepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 66:146–149, 1976.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Stern MS, Gitnick GL: Shigella hepatitis. JAMA 235:2628, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Brundiage WG, Thuss CJ, Walden DC: Four fatal cases of melioidosis in U.S. soldiers in Vietnam. Bacteriologic and pathologic characteristics. Am J Trop Med Hyg 17:183–191, 1968.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Greenwald KA, Nash G, Foley FD: Acute systemic melioidosis. Autopsy findings in four patients. Am J Clin Pathol 52:188–198, 1969.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Piggott JA, Hochholzer L: Human melioidosis. A histopathologic study of acute and chronic melioidosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 90:101–111, 1970.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Forshay L: Tularemia. A summary of certain aspects of the disease including methods for early diagnosis and the results of serum treatment in 600 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 19:1–83, 1940.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pullen RL, Stuart BM: Tularemia. Analysis of 225 cases. JAMA 129:495–500, 1945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Drake AA, Gilchrist MJR, Washington JA, et al: Diarrhea due to Campylobacter fetus subspecies jejuni. A clinical review of 63 cases. Mayo Clin Proc 56:414–423, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pitkanen T, Ponka A, Pettersson T, et al: Campylobacter enteritis in 188 hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med 143:215–219, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Reddy KR, Farnum JB, Thomas E: Acute hepatitis associated Campylobacter colitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 5:259–262, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nushan H, Bailey AA: Acute hepatitis due to brucellosis. Ann Intern Med 39:915–919, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Spink WW: Suppuration and calcification of the liver and spleen due to long-standing infection with Brucella suis. N Engl J Med 257:209–210, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Cohen FB, Robins B, Lipsten W: Isolation of Brucella abortus by percutaneous liver biopsy. S Engl J Med 257:228–230, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Fogel R, Lewis S: Diagnosis of Brucella melitensis infection by percutaneous needle biopsy of the liver. Ann Intern Med 53:204–215, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Young EJ: Brucella melitensis hepatitis: The absence of granulomas. Ann Intern Med 91:414–415, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Robbins SL, Cotran RS: Pathologic Basis of Disease. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1979.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    World Health Organization: Bacterial and viral zoonoses. WHO Tech Rep Ser 682:1–146, 1982.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Spelman DW: Q fever. A study of 111 consecutive cases. Med J Aust 1:547–553, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Powell SW: Liver involvement in“Q”fever. Aust Ann Med 10:52–58, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    DuPont HL, Hornick RB, Levin HS, et al: Q fever hepatitis. Ann Intern Med 74:198–206, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Urso FP: The pathologic findings in rickettsial pneumonia. Am J Clin Pathol 64:335–342, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bernstein M, Edmondson HA, Barbour BH: The liver lesion in Q fever. Clinical and pathologic features. Arch Intern Med 116:491–498, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hofmann CE, Heaton JW Jr: Q fever hepatitis. Clinical manifestations and pathological findings. Gastroenterology 83:474–479, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mitchell R, Grist NR, Bazaz G, et al: Pathological, rickettsiological and immunofluorescence studies of a case of Q fever endocarditis. J Pathol 91:317–323, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Marecki N, Becker F, Baca OG, et al: Changes in liver and L-cell plasma membranes during infection with Coxiella burnetii. Infect Immun 19:272–280, 1978.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Westerman EL: Rocky Mountain spotless fever. A dilemma for the clinician. Arch Intern Med 142:1106–1107, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ramsey PG, Press OW: Successful treatment of Rocky Mountain “spotless” fever. West J Med 140:94–96, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ramphal R, Kluge R, Cohen V, et al: Rocky Mountain spotted fever and jaundice. Two consecutive cases acquired in Florida and a review of the literature on this complication. Arch Intern Med 138:260–263, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Walker DH, Cain BG: The rickettsial plaque. Evidence for direct cytopathic effect of Rickettsia rickettsii. Lab Invest 43:388–396, 1980.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kaplan AS (ed): The Herpesviruses. Academic, New York, 1973.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dunnet WN: Infectious mononucleosis. Br Med J 1:1187–1191, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gelb D, West M, Zimmerman HJ: Serum enzymes in disease. IX. Analysis of factors responsible for elevated values in infectious mononucleosis. Am J Med 33:249–261, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Abrams HL: Infectious mononucleosis with intense jaundice of long duration. S Engl J Med 238:295–297, 1948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jordan WS, Albright RW: Liver function tests in infectious mononucleosis. J Lab Clin Med 35:688–698, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hoagland RJ: Infectious Mononucleosis. Grune & Stratton, Orlando, Florida, 1967.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Gowing NFC: Infectious mononucleosis: Histophathologic aspects, in Sommers SC (ed): Haematologic and Lymphoid Pathology. Decennial 1966–1975. Appleton & Lange, East Norwalk, Connecticut, 1975, pp. 261–280.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Allen UR, Bass BH: Fatal hepatic necrosis in glandular fever. J Clin Pathol 16:337–341, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Nahmias AJ, Roizman S: Infection with herpes-simplex viruses 1 and 2. S Engl J Med 289:667–674, 719-725, 781-789, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Amstey MS: Management of pregnancy complicated by genital herpes virus infection. Obstet Gynecol 37:515–520, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    White JG: Fulminating infection with herpes-simplex virus in premature and newborn infants. S Engl J Med 269:455–460, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Miller DR, Hanshaw JB, O’Leary DS, et al: Fatal disseminated herpes simplex virus infection and hemorrhage in the neonate. Coagulation studies in a case and a review. J Pediatr 76:409–415, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lee JC, Fortuny IE: Adult herpes simplex hepatitis. Hum Pathol 3:277–281, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Taina E, Hanninen P, Gronroos M: Viral infections in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 64:167–173, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Nahmias AJ, Alford CA, Korones SB: Infection of the newborn with herpes virus hominus. Adv Pediatr 17:185–226, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Overall JC Jr, Glasgow LA: Virus infections of the fetus and newborn infant. J Pediatr 77:315–333, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hanshaw JB: Herpes virus hominis infection in the fetus and newborn. Am J Dis Child 126:546–555, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Goodman ZD, Ishak KG, Sesterhenn IA: Herpes simplex hepatitis in apparently immunocompetent adults. Am J Clin Pathol 85:694–699, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Schiff GM: Viral diseases of the liver other than infectious and serum hepatitis, in Schiff L (ed): Diseases of the Liver, 4th ed. JB Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1975, pp. 594–603.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wright R, Millward-Sadler GH, Bull FG: Acute viral hepatitis, in Wright R, Millward-Sadler GH, Alberti KGMM, Karran S (eds): Liver and Biliary Disease, 2nd ed. WB Saunders, London, 1985, pp. 677–767.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Chiba S, Hori S, Kawamura N, et al: Primary cytomegalovirus infection and liver involvement in early infancy. Tohoku J Exp Med 117:143–151, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Fisher ER, Davis E: Cytomegalic-inclusion disease in the adult. Engl J Med 258:1036–1040, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Shusterman NH, Frauenhoffer C, Kinsey MD: Fatal massive hepatic necrosis in cytomegalovirus mononucleosis. Ann Intern Med 88:810–812, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Francis SS, Moore, DL, Edington GM, et al: A clinicopathological study of human yellow fever. Bull WHO 46:659–667, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kerr JA: Liver pathology in yellow fever. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 67:882, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    World Health Organization: Viral haemorrhagic fevers. WHO Tech Rep Ser 721:1–126, 1985.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Howard CR, Ellis DS, Simpson DIH: Exotic viruses and the liver. Semin Liver Dis 4:361–374, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Mims CA: Aspects of the pathogenesis of virus diseases. Bacteriol Rev 28:30–71, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    O’Shaughnessey WJ, Buechner HA: Hepatitis associated with a Coxsackie B5 virus infection during late pregnancy. JAMA 179:71–72, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sun NC, Smith VM: Hepatitis associated with myocarditis. Unusual manifestation of infection with Coxsackie virus group B, type 3. S Engl J Med 274:190–193, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gregor GR, Geller SA, Walker GF, et al: Coxsackie hepatitis in an adult with ultrastructural demonstration of the virus. Mt Sinai J Med 12:575–580, 1975.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hinkle GH, Leonard JC, Krous HF, et al: Absence of hepatic uptake of Tc-99mm sulfur colloid in an infant with Coxsackie B2 viral infection. Clin Nucl Med 8:246–248, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kaplan MH, Klein SW, McPhee J, et al: Group S coxsackievirus infections in infants younger than three months of age: A serious childhood illness. Rev Infect Dis 5:1019–1032, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Edington GM, White HA: The pathology of Lassa fever. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 66:381–389, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Winn WC Jr, Walker DH: The pathology of human Lassa fever. Bull WHO 52:535–545, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Child PL, McKenzie RB, Valverde LR, et al: Bolivian haemorrhagic fever: A pathogenic description. Arch Pathol Lab Med 83:434–435, 1967.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Eisner B, Schwarz E, Mando OG, et al: Pathology of 12 fatal cases of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22:229–236, 1973.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Howard CR, Simpson DIH: The biology of arenaviruses. J Gen Virol 51:1–14, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Smith CE, Simpson DI, Simpson ET, et al: Fatal human disease from vervet monkeys. Lancet 2:1119–1121, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Bechtelsheimer H, Korb G, Gedigk S: The morphology and pathogenesis of “Marburg virus” hepatitis. Hum Pathol 3:255–264, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Gear JSS, Cassel GA, Gear AJ, et al: Outbreak of Marburg virus disease in Johannesburg. Br Med J 4:489–493, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Murphy FA, Simpson DIH, Whitfield SG, et al: Marburg virus infection in monkeys: Ultrastructural studies. Lab Invest 24:279–291, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Editorial: World Health Organization. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 52:177, 1976.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Bowen ETW, Platt GS, Lloyd G, et al: Viral hemorrhagic fever in southern Sudan and Northern Zaire. Lancet 1:571–573, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ellis DS, Simpson DIH, Francis DP, et al: Ultrastructure of Ebola virus particles in human liver. J Clin Pathol 31:201–208, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Van Velden DJJ, Meyer JD, Olivier J, et al: Rift Valley fever affecting humans in South Africa. A clinicopathological study. S Afr Med J 51:867–871, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    El Shinnawi BM, Sobhy F, El Zawahry A: Laboratory findings in some cases of Rift Valley fever: Histopathological, haematological, and biochemical. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 53:187–189, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Laughlin LW, Meegan JM, Strausbaugh LJ, et al: Epidemic Rift Valley fever in Egypt: Observations of the spectrum of human illness. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 73:630–633, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    World Health Organization: Rift Valley fever: An emerging human and animal problem. WHO Pub 63:1–69, 1982.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Warren WR: Hepatitis complicating mumps. Arch Intern Med 98:525–528, 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Korones SB, Ainger LE, Monif GRG, et al: Congenital rubella syndrome: New clinical aspects with recovery of virus from affected infants. J Pediatr 67:166–181, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Esterly JR, Slusser RJ, Ruebner BH: Hepatic lesions in the congenital rubella syndrome. J Pediatr 71:676–685, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ali Z, Hull B, Lewis M: Neonatal manifestation of congenital rubella following an outbreak in Trinidad. J Trop Pediatr 32:79–82, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Evans AS (ed): Viral Infections of Humans. Plenum, New York, 1976.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Holdstock G, Balasegaram M, Millward-Sadler GH, et al: The liver in infection, in Wright R, Millward-Sadler GH, Alberti KGMM, Karran S (eds): Liver and Biliary Disease, 2nd ed. WB Saunders, London, 1985, pp. 1077–1119.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles O. Abernathy
    • 1
  • J. Thomas Stocker
    • 2
  • Riccardo Utili
    • 3
  • Leonard B. Seeff
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Health Effects Branch (WH-550D), Office of Drinking WaterU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyUSA
  2. 2.Armed Forces Institute of PathologyUSA
  3. 3.Clinic of Tropical and Subtropical Diseases, First Medical SchoolUniversity of NaplesNaplesItaly
  4. 4.Georgetown UniversityUSA
  5. 5.Gastroenterology/Hepatology/NutritionVeterans Administration Medical CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations