Hepatitis A Infection: Pathology

  • Kamal G. Ishak


The hepatitis A virus was first detected by immune electron microscopy by Feinstone et al.1 Hepatitis A is an acute self-limited illness, but a protracted course and severe cholestatic features may occur.1–4 Relapses (biphasic course) are rare.5–8 It does not lead to chronic liver disease or a carrier state. Infection results in lifelong immunity. Hepatitis S carriers can be superinfected by hepatitis A without any effect on their clinical course,9, 10 and acute hepatitis S and A can occur simultaneously.10


Acute Hepatitis Chronic Active Hepatitis Acute Viral Hepatitis NANB Hepatitis Immune Electron Microscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Feinstone SM, Kapikian AZ, Purcell RH: Hepatitis A: Detection by immune electron microscopy of a viruslike antigen associated with acute illness. Science 182:1026–1028, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mathiesen LR: The hepatitis A virus infection. Liver 1:81–109, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lemon SM: Type A viral hepatitis. New developments in an old disease. S Engl J Med 313:1059–1067, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Feinstoen SM: Hepatitis A. Prog Liver Dis 8:299–310, 1986.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jacobson IM, North BJ, Dienstag JL: Relapsing viral hepatitis A. J Med Virol 16:163–169, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cobden I, James OFW: A biphasic illness associated with acute hepatitis A virus infection. J. Hepatol 2:19–23, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sjogren MH, Tanno H, Fay O, et al: Hepatitis A in stool during clinical relapse. Ann Intern Med. 106:221–226, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tanno H, Fay O, Rojman, JA, et al: Biphasic form of hepatitis A infection: A frequent variant in Argentina. Liver 8:53–57, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Conteas C, Kao H, Rakela J, et al: Acute type A hepatitis in three patients with chronic HBV infection. Dig Dis Sci 28:684–686, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zachoval R, Roggendorf M, Deinhardt F: Hepatitis A infection in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus. Hepatology 3:528–531, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abe H, Ikejiri N, Sata M, et al: Histological findings of the liver in viral hepatitis type A. A comparison with viral hepatitis type B. Acta Hepatol Jpn 22:22–31, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Abe H, Beninger PR, Ikejiri N, et al: Light microscopic findings of liver biopsy specimens from patients with hepatitis type A and comparison with type B. Gastroenterology 82:938–947, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Teixeira MR JS, Weiler IVD, Murray A, et al: The pathology of hepatitis A in man. Liver 2:53–60, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kryger P, Christoffersen S: Liver histopathology of the hepatitis A virus infection: A comparison with hepatitis type S and non-S, non-B. J. Clin Pathol 36:650–654, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Okuno T, Sano A, Deguchi T, et al: Pathology of acute hepatitis A in humans. Comparison with acute hepatitis B. Am J Clin Pathol 81:162–169, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sciot R, Van Damme B, Desmet VJ: Cholestatic features in hepatitis A. J. Hepatol 3:172–181, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Korb G: Morphologische Befunde bei der menschlichen Virus-S-hepatitis. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 68:540, 1984.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Korb G: Dic Virus-S-hepatitis. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 109:110–112, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dienes HP, Hutteroth T, Bianchi L, et al: Hepatitis A-like non-A, non-B hepatitis: Light and electron microscopic observations of three cases. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat 409:657–667, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Benjamin SB, Goodman ZD, Ishak KG, et al: The morphologic spectrum of halothane-induced hepatic injury: Analysis of 77 cases. Hepatology 5:1163–1171, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sciot R, Van Den Oord JJ, De Wolf-Peeters C, et al: In situ characterization of the (peri)portal inflammatory infiltrate in acute hepatitis A. Liver 6:331–336, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mathiesen LR, Fauerholdt, L, Moller AM, et al: Immunofluorescence studies for hepatitis A virus and hepatitis S surface and core antigen in liver biopsies from patients with acute viral hepatitis. Gastroenterology 77:623–628, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Huang S-N, Lorenz D: Electron and immunoelectron microscopic study on liver tissues of marmosets infected with hepatitis A virus. Lab Invest 41:63–71, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moriyama M: Detection of HAV in the epithelial cells of interlobular bile ducts of marmosets with acute hepatitis A. Acta Hepatol Jpn 26:867–876, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Krawczinski KK, Bradley DW, Murphy BL, et al: Pathogenetic aspects of hepatitis A virus infection in enterally inoculated marmosets. Am J Clin Pathol 76:698–706, 1981.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Inoue O: Morphological studies on the mechanism of hepatocellular injury during acute phase of infection in marmosets inoculated with hepatitis A virus. Acta Pathol Jpn 35:1319–1331, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Karayiannis P, Jowett, T, Enticolt M et al: Hepatitis A virus replication on Tamarins and host immune response in relation to pathogenesis of liver cell damage. J Med Virol 18:261–276, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hirose S: Experimental infection of hepatitis A virus in marmoset monkeys: growth kinetics of the virus and the mechanism of liver cell destruction in vivo. Acta Hepatol Jpn 29:16–23, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vallbracht A, Gabriel P, Maier S et al: Cell mediated cytotoxicity in hepatitis A virus infection. Hepatology 6:1308–1314, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kamal G. Ishak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Hepatic PathologyArmed Forces Institute of PathologyUSA

Personalised recommendations