Ecology and Control

  • Bryce W. Falk
  • James E. Duffus
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)


Ecology and control of plant viruses should be stressed together, for it is through understanding the ecology and epidemiology of plant viruses and their vectors that we have been able to control successfully a number of important plant virus diseases. It will be seen that some of the ground covered here has been detailed from a different viewpoint in Chapter 7. However, we feel that some overlap is inevitable in putting control measures and their ecological basis in context.


Mosaic Virus Citrus Tristeza Virus Soybean Mosaic Virus Primary Inoculum Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adlerz, W. C., 1974, Spring aphid flights and the incidence of watermelon mosaic viruses 1 and 2 in Florida, Phytopathology 57: 476.Google Scholar
  2. Adlerz, W. C., 1978a, Secondary spread of watermelon mosaic virus 2 by Anuraphis middletonii, J. Econ. Entomol. 71: 531.Google Scholar
  3. Adlerz, W. C., 1978b, Watermelon mosaic virus 2 epidemics in Florida 1967–1977, J. Econ. Entomol. 71: 596.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, T. C., 1972, Lily symptomless virus, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 96.Google Scholar
  5. Ashworth, L. J. Jr., and Futrell, M. C., 1961, Sources, transmission, symptomatology and distribution of wheat streak mosaic virus in Texas, Plant Dis. Rep. 45: 220.Google Scholar
  6. Asjes, C. J., 1981, Control of stylet-borne spread by aphids of tulip breaking virus in lilies and tulips, and hyacinth mosaic virus in hyacinths by Pirimicarb and Permethrin sprays versus mineral-oil sprays, Med. Fac. Landboruww. Rijksunin. Genet., 46: 1073.Google Scholar
  7. Attathom, D., Weathers, L. G., and Gumpf, D. J., 1978, Occurrence and distribution of a virus-induced disease of barrel cactus in California, Plant Dis. Rep. 62: 228.Google Scholar
  8. Bar-Joseph, M., and Loebenstein, G., 1973, Effects of strain, source plant and temperature or the transmissibility of citrus tristeza virus by the melon aphid, Phytopathology 63: 716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bar-Joseph, M., Garnsey, S. M., and Gonsalves, D., 1979, The closteroviruses: A distinct group of elongated plant viruses, Adv. Virus Res. 25: 93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bar-Joseph, M., Roistacher, C. N., and Garnsey, S. M., 1983, The epidemiology and control of citurs tristeza decline, in: Plant Virus Epidemiology( R. T. Plumb and J. M. Thresh, eds.), pp 61–72, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.Google Scholar
  11. Broadbent, L., 1969, Disease control through vector control, p. 593–630, In K. Maramorosch (ed.), Viruses, Vectors and Vegetation, Interscience publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, S., 1981, Reducing the spread of aphid-transmitted viruses in peppers by coarse-net cover, Phytoparasitica 9: 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen, S., 1982, Control of whitefly vectors of viruses by color mulches, in: Pathogens, Vectors, and Plant Diseases: Approaches to Control( K. F. Harris and K. Maramorosch, eds.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Cohen, S., and Antignus, Y., 1982, A noncirculative whitefly-borne virus affecting tomatoes in Israel, Phytoparasitica 10: 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen, S., and Berlinger, M. J., 1986, Transmission and cultural control of whitefly-borne viruses, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 17: 89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen, S., and Marco, S., 1973, Reducing the spread of aphid-transmitted viruses in peppers by trapping the aphids on sticky yellow polyethylene sheets, Phytopathology 63: 1207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen, S., and Melamed-Madjar, V., 1978, Prevention by soil mulching of the spread of tomato yellow leaf curl virus transmitted by Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) (Homoptera: Alegoridae) in Israel, Bull. Entomol. Res. 68: 465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen, S., and Nitzany, F. E., 1960, A whitefly transmitted virus of cucurbits in Israel, Phytopathol. Medit. 1: 44.Google Scholar
  19. Davis, R. F., and Shiffriss, O., 1983, Natural virus infection in silvery and nonsilvery lines of Cucurbita pepo, Plant Dis. 67: 379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dawson, W. O., 1984, Effects of animal antiviral chemicals on plant viruses, Phytopathology 74: 211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DeWijs, J. J., 1980, The characteristics of mineral oils in relation to their inhibitory activity on the aphid transmission of potato virus Y, Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 8: 291.Google Scholar
  22. Dickson, R. G., and Laird, E. F., 1959, California desert and coastal populations of flying aphids and the spread of lettuce mosaic virus, J. Econ. Entomol. 52: 440.Google Scholar
  23. Dickson, R. G., Johnson, M. M., Flock, R. A., and Laird, E. F., Jr., 1956, Flying aphid populations in southern California citrus groves and their relation to the transmission of the tristeza virus, Phytopathology 46: 204.Google Scholar
  24. Duffus, J. E., 1963, Incidence of beet virus diseases in relation to overwintering beet fields, Plant Dis. Rep. 47: 428.Google Scholar
  25. Duffus, J. E., 1965, Beet pseudo-yellows virus, transmitted by the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), Phytopathology 55: 450.Google Scholar
  26. Duffus, J. E., 1972, Beet yellow stunt, a potentially destructive virus disease of sugar beet and lettuce, Phytopathology 62: 161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Duffus, J. E., 1983, Epidemiology and control of aphid-borne virus diseases in California, in: Plant Virus Epidemiology( R. T. Plumb and J. M. Thresh, eds.), pp. 221–227, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.Google Scholar
  28. Duffus, J. E., 1986, Whitefly transmission of plant viruses, in: Current Topics in PathogenVector-Host Research, Praeger Scientific.Google Scholar
  29. Duffus, J. E., Mayhew, D. E., and Flock, R. A., 1982, Lettuce infectious yellows—a new whitefly transmitted virus of the desert southwest, Phytopathology 72: 963.Google Scholar
  30. Duffus, J. E., Larsen, R. C., and Liu, H. Y., 1986, Lettuce infectious yellows virus—a new type of whitefly-transmitted virus, Phytopathology 76: 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Falk, B. W., and Purcifull, D. E., 1983, Development and application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test to index lettuce seeds for lettuce mosaic virus in Florida, Plant Dis. 67: 413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Francki, R. I. B., Milne, R. G., and Hatta, T., 1985, Atlas of Plant Viruses, Vols. I and II, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grogan, R. G., 1980, Control of lettuce mosaic with virus-free seed, Plant Dis. 64: 446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grogan, R. G., Welch, J. E., and Bardin, R., 1952, Common lettuce mosaic and its control by the use of mosaic-free seed, Phytopathology 42: 573.Google Scholar
  35. Halbert, S. E., Irwin, M. E., and Goodman, R. M., 1981, Alate aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) species and their relative importance as field vectors of soybean mosaic virus, Ann. Appl. Biol. 97: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hampton, R. O., 1967, Natural spread of viruses infectious to beans, Phytopathology 57: 476.Google Scholar
  37. Hampton, R. O., and Weber, K. A., 1983a, Pea streak virus transmission from alfalfa to peas: Virus-aphid and virus-host relationships, Plant Dis. 67: 305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hampton, R. O., and Weber, K. A., 1983b, Pea streak and alfalfa mosaic viruses in alfalfa: Reservoir of viruses infectious to Pisumpeas, Plant Dis. 67: 308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hill, J. H., Lucas, B. S., Benner, H. I., Tachibana, H., Hammond, R. B., and Pedigo, L. P., 1980, Factors associated with the epidemiology of soybean mosaic virus in Iowa, Phytopathology 70: 536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hollings, M., and Brunt, A. A., 1981, Potyviruses, in: Handbook of Plant Virus Infections and Comparative Diagnosis( E. Kustak, ed.), pp. 731–807, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  41. Hollings, M., Stone, O. M., and Bock, K. R., 1976, Purification and properties of sweet potato mild mottle, a whitefly-bome virus from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) in East Africa, Ann. Appl. Biol. 82: 511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Inouye, T., 1969, Filamentous particles as the causal agent of yellow mosaic disease of wheat, Nogaku Kenkya Ohara Inst. Agric. Biol. Okayama Univ. 53: 61.Google Scholar
  43. Irwin, M. E., and Goodman, R. M., 1981, Ecology and control of soybean mosaic virus, in: Plant Diseases and Vectors: Ecology and Epidemiology( K. Maramorosch and K. F. Harris, eds.), pp. 181–220, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Jayasena, K. W., and Randles, J. W., 1985, The effect of insecticides and a plant barrier row on aphid populations and the spread of bean yellow mosaic potyvirus and subterranean clover red leaf luteovirus in Vicia fabain South Australia, Arm. Appl. Biol. 107: 355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jones, R. A. C., 1981, The ecology of viruses infecting wild and cultivated potatoes in the Andean region of South America, in: Pests, Pathogens and Vegetation( J. M. Thresh, ed.), pp. 89–108, Pitman Adramed Publishing Program, Boston.Google Scholar
  46. Kassanis, B., 1947, Studies on dandelion yellow mosaic and other virus diseases of lettuce, Ann. Appl. Biol. 34: 412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kassanis, B., and Schwabe, W. W., 1961, The effect of paracrinkle virus on the growth of King Edward potato at different temperatures and day lengths, Annals of Applied Biology 49: 616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kennedy, J. S., Day, M. F., and Eastop, V. F., 1962, A Conspectus of Aphids as Vectors of Plant Viruses, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, U.K.Google Scholar
  49. Kiefer, M. C., Bruening, G., and Russell, M. L., 1984, RNA and capsid accumulation in cowpea protoplasts that are resistant to cowpea mosaic virus strain SB, Virology 137: 371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Klein, R. E., and Livingston, C. H., 1983, Eradication of potato viruses X and S from potato shoot-tip cultures with ribavirin, Phytopathology 73: 1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Knoke, J. K., and Louie, R., 1981, Epiphytology of maize virus diseases, in: Virus and Viruslike Diseases of Maize in the United States(D. T. Gordon, J. K. Knoke, and G. Scott, eds.), pp. 92–102, So. Coop. Ser. Bull. 247, June 1981.Google Scholar
  52. Lesseman, D.-E. and Koenig, R., 1977, Potexvirus (potato virus X) group, in: Insect and Plant Viruses( K. Maramorosch, ed.), pp. 331–345, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Lister, R. M., and Bar-Joseph, M., 1981, Closteroviruses, in: Handbook of Plant Virus Infections and Comparative Diagnosis( E. Kurstak, ed.), pp. 809–844, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  54. Loebenstein, G., and Raccah, B., 1980, Control of non-persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses, Phytoparasitica 8: 221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lozoya-Saldana, H., Dawson, W. O., and Murashige, T., 1984, Effects of ribavirin and adenine arabinoside on tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana tabacumL. var. xanthitissue culture, Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture 3: 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Marrou, J., and Messiaen, C. M., 1967, The Chenopodium quinoatest: A critical method for detecting seed transmission of lettuce mosaic virus, Proc. Int. Seed Test Assoc. 32: 49.Google Scholar
  57. Matthews, R. E. F., 1982, Classification and nomenclature of viruses, Fourth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Intervirology 17: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miller, R. V., Carroll, T. W., and Sands, D. C., 1983, Anti-viral chemotherapy of the seed-borne virus, barley stripe mosaic virus, Phytopathology 73: 792.Google Scholar
  59. Muniyappa, V., 1980, Whiteflies, in: Vectors of Plant Pathogens( K. Harris and K. Maramorosch, eds.), pp. 39–85, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Newhall, A. G., 1923, Seed transmission of lettuce mosaic virus, Phytopathology 13: 104.Google Scholar
  61. Pirone, T. P., and Harris, K. F., 1977, Nonpersistent transmission of plant viruses by aphids, Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 15: 55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Purcifull, D. E., and Edwardson, J. R., 1981, Potexviruses, in: Handbook of Plant Virus Infections and Comparative Diagnosis( E. Kurstak, ed.), pp. 627–693, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  63. Purcifull, D. E., Edwardson, J. R., Hiebert, E., and Gonsalves, D., 1984, Papaya ringspot virus, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant VirusesNo. 292.Google Scholar
  64. Robbins, W. W., 1921, Mosaic disease of sugar beets, Phytopathology 11: 349.Google Scholar
  65. Sela, I., Assouline, I., Tanne, E., Cohen, S., and Marco, S., 1980, Isolation and characterization of a rod-shaped, whitefly-transmissible, DNA containing plant virus, Phytopathology 70: 226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Severin, H. H. P., and Freitag, J. H., 1938, Western celery mosaic, Hilgardia 11: 495.Google Scholar
  67. Shepard, J. F., 1977, Regeneration of plants from protoplasts of potato virus X-infected tobacco leaves. II. Influence of Virazole on the frequency of infection, Virology 78: 261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Shepherd, R. J., and Hills, E. J., 1970, Dispersal of beet yellows and beet mosaic viruses in the inland valleys of California, Phytopathology 60: 798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Simons, J. N., 1958, The effects of movements of winged aphids on transmission of a nonpersistent aphid-borne virus, Proc. Tenth Int. Cong. Entomol. 3: 229.Google Scholar
  70. Simons, J. N., 1959, Factors affecting secondary spread of nonpersistent aphid-borne virus, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 136.Google Scholar
  71. Simons, J. N., 1982, Use of oil sprays and reflective surfaces for control of insect-transmitted plant viruses, in: Pathogens, Vectors, and Plant Diseases: Approaches to Control( K. F. Harris and K. Maramorosch, eds.), pp. 71–73, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  72. Simons, J. N., and Zitter, T. A., 1980, Use of oils to control aphid-borne viruses, Plant Dis. 64: 542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Slykhuis, J. T., 1955, Aceria tulipaeKeifer (Acarina: Eriophyidae) in relation to the spread of wheat streak mosaic, Phytopathology 45: 116.Google Scholar
  74. Slykhuis, J. T., 1970, Factors determining the development of wheat spindle streak caused by a soil-borne virus in Ontario, Phytopathology 60: 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sutabatra, T., and Campbell, R. N., 1971, Strains of celery mosaic virus from parsley and poison hemlock in California, Plant Dis. Rep. 55: 328.Google Scholar
  76. Sylvester, E. S., 1969, Virus transmission by aphids—a viewpoint, in: Viruses, Vectors, Vegetation( K. Maramorosch, ed.), pp. 159–174, Interscience Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  77. Van Vuurde, J. W. L., and Maat, D. Z., 1983, Routine application of ELISA for the detection of lettuce mosaic virus in lettuce seeds, Seed Sci. Technol. 11: 505.Google Scholar
  78. Watson, M. A., 1946, The transmission of beet mosaic and beet yellows viruses by aphids: Comparative study of a non-persistent and a persistent virus having host plants and vectors in common, Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.) Ser. B. 133: 200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Watson, M. A., and Healy, M. J. R., 1952, The spread of beet yellows and beet mosaic viruses in the sugar-beet crops. II. The effects of aphid numbers on disease incidence, Ann. Appl. Biol. 40: 38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Watson, M. A., and Plumb, R. T., 1972, Transmission of plant-pathogenic viruses by aphids, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 17: 425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Watson, M. A., Hull, R., Blencowe, J. W., and Hamlyn, B. M., 1951, The spread of beet yellows and beet mosaic viruses in the sugar-beet root crops. I. Field observations on the virus diseases of sugar beet and their vectors Myzus persicaeSulz. and Aphis fabaeKoch., Ann. Appl. Biol. 38: 743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Watson, M. A., Heathcote, G. D., Lauckner, F. B., and Sowray, P. A., 1975, The use of weather data and counts of aphids in the field to predict the incidence of yellowing viruses of sugar-beet crops in England in relation to the use of insecticides, Ann. Appl. Biol. 81: 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wetter, C., and Milne, R. G., 1981, Carlaviruses, in: Handbook of Plant Virus Infections and Comparitive Diagnosis( E. Kurstak, ed.), pp. 695–730, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  84. Wyman, J. A., Toscano, N. C., Kido, K., Johnson, H., and Mayberry, K. S., 1979, Effects of mulching on the spread of aphid-transmitted watermelon mosaic virus to summer squash, J. Econ. Entomol. 72: 139.Google Scholar
  85. Youtsey, C. O., and Hebb, L. H., 1982, Tristeza decline in four grapefruit cultivars at the budwood foundation grove, Dundee, Florida, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 95: 60.Google Scholar
  86. Zettler, F. W., Henner, G. R., Bodnaruk, W. H., Cifford, H. T., and Sheehan, T. J., 1978, Wild and cultivated orchids surveyed in Florida for the cymbidium mosaic and odontoglossum ringspot viruses, Plant Dis. Rep. 62: 949.Google Scholar
  87. Zink, F. W., and Duffus, J. E., 1969, Relationship of turnip mosaic virus susceptibility and downy mildew (Bremia lactucae)resistance in lettuce, J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 94: 403.Google Scholar
  88. Zink, F. W., Grogan, R. G., and Welch, J. E., 1956, The effect of the percentage of seed transmission upon subsequent spread of lettuce mosaic, Phytopathology 46: 662.Google Scholar
  89. Zitter, T. A., 1980, Florida virus disease control, Am. Veg. Grower 28: 12.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bryce W. Falk
    • 1
  • James E. Duffus
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agricultural and Environmental SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research ServiceSalinasUSA

Personalised recommendations