Tomato Mosaic Virus

  • Alan A. Brunt
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)

Abstract

Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), which has occurred in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in the United States (Clinton, 1909; Allard, 1916) and the Netherlands (Westerdijk, 1910) for over 75 years, now probably occurs wherever tomato crops are grown (Broadbent, 1976; Hollings and Huttinga, 1976). Because of its close serological relationship to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), ToMV is still often considered to be a strain of TMV (e.g., Van Regenmortel, 1975, 1981; Van De Walle and Siegel, 1976; Dawson et al., 1979; Kukla et al., 1979; Fraser and Loughlin, 1980; Fraser et al., 1980; Burgyán and Gaborjanyi, 1984). However, because the two can be readily distinguished by differences in host range, serological affinities, and protein compositions, ToMV has during the past 15 years been increasingly recognized as a distinct virus (e.g., Harrison et al., 1971; Fenner, 1976; Hollings and Huttinga, 1976; Gibbs, 1977). I briefly review here its natural occurrence, major properties, affinities, epidemiology, and control.

Keywords

Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Tobacco Mosaic Virus Tomato Crop Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahoonmanesh, A., and Shalla, T. A., 1981, Feasibility of cross-protection for control of tomato mosaic virus in fresh market field-grown tomatoes, Plant Dis. 65: 56.Google Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, G. C., 1937, ‘Enation mosaic’ of tomato caused by a virus of the tobacco virus 1 type, Ann. Appl. Biol. 24:545.Google Scholar
  3. Ainsworth, G. C., and Selman, I. W., 1936, Some effects of tobacco mosaic virus on the growth of seedling tomato plants, Ann. Appl. Biol. 23:89.Google Scholar
  4. Alexander, L. J., 1962, Strains of TMV on tomato in the Netherlands and in Ohio, U.S.A., Meded. Landbouwhogesch. Opzoekingsstn. Staat Gent 72:1020.Google Scholar
  5. Alexander, L. J., 1971, Host-pathogen dynamics of tobacco mosaic virus on tomato, Phytopathology 61:611.Google Scholar
  6. Allard, H. A., 1916, The mosaic disease of tomatoes and petunias, Phytopathology 6:328.Google Scholar
  7. Allen, A. S., 1969, Cytopathology of inclusions caused by six strains of tobacco mosaic virus in leaf cells of resistant and susceptible Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, Diss. Abstr. B 29:3633.Google Scholar
  8. Anderer, F. A., 1963, Recent studies on the structure of tobacco mosaic virus, Adv. Protein Chem. 18:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderer, F. A., Uhlig, H., Weber, E., and Schramm, G., 1960, Primary structure of the protein of tobacco mosaic virus, Nature (London) 186:922.Google Scholar
  10. Arroya, A., and Selman, I. W., 1977, The effects of rootstock and scion on tobacco mosaic virus infection in susceptible, tolerant and immune cultivars of tomato, Ann. Appl. Biol. 85:249.Google Scholar
  11. Bald, J. G., and Paulus, A. O., 1963, A characteristic form of tobacco mosaic virus in tomato and Chenopodiumn murale, Phytopathology 53:627.Google Scholar
  12. Bewley, W. F., 1923, Diseases of Glasshouse Plants, Ernest Benn, London.Google Scholar
  13. Boyle, J. S., and Bergman, E. L., 1967, Factors affecting incidence and severity of internal browning of tomato induced by tobacco mosaic virus, Phytopathology 57:354.Google Scholar
  14. Bradley, R. H. E., and Harris, K. F., 1972, Aphids can inoculate plants with tobacco mosaic virus by clawing, Virology 50:615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Briand, J. P., Al Moudallal, Z., and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1982, Serological differentiation of tobamoviruses by means of monoclonal antibodies, J. Virol. Methods 5:293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Broadbent, L., 1961, The epidemiology of tomato mosaic, 1. A review of the literature, Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 60:96.Google Scholar
  17. Broadbent, L., 1962, The epidemiology of tomato mosaic. 2. Smoking tobacco as a source of virus, Ann. Appl. Biol. 50:461.Google Scholar
  18. Broadbent, L., 1965a, The epidemiology of tomato mosaic. 8. Virus infection through tomato roots, Ann. Appl. Biol. 55:57.Google Scholar
  19. Broadbent, L., 1965b, The epidemiology of tomato mosaic. 9. Transmission of TMV by birds, Ann. Appl. Biol. 55:67.Google Scholar
  20. Broadbent, L., 1965c, The epidemiology of tomato mosaic. 11. Seed-transmission of TMV, Ann. Appl. Biol. 56:177.Google Scholar
  21. Broadbent, L., 1976, Epidemiology and control of tomato mosaic virus, Ann u. Rev. Phytopathol. 14:75.Google Scholar
  22. Broadbent, L., and Cooper, A. J., 1964, The epidemiology of tomato mosaic. 6. The influence of tomato mosaic virus on root growth and the annual pattern of fruit production, Ann. Appl. Biol. 54:31.Google Scholar
  23. Broadbent, L., and Winsor, G. W., 1964, The epidemiology of tomato mosaic. 5. The effect on TMV-infected plants of nutrient foliar sprays and of steaming the soil, Ann. Appl. Biol. 54:23.Google Scholar
  24. Broadbent, L., Read, W. H., and Last, F. T., 1965, The epidemiology of tomato mosaic. 10. Persistence of TMV-infected debris in soil and the effects of soil partial sterilization, Ann. Appl. Biol. 55:471.Google Scholar
  25. Burgyan, J., and Gaborjanyi, R., 1984, Cross-protection and multiplication of mild and severe strains of TMV in tomato plants, Phytopathol. Z. 110:156.Google Scholar
  26. Caldwell, J., 1959, Persistence of tomato aucuba mosaic virus in dried leaf tissue, Nature (London) 183:1142.Google Scholar
  27. Caspar, D. L. D., 1963, Radial density distribution in the tobacco mosaic virus particle, Nature (London) 177:928.Google Scholar
  28. Caspar, D. L. D., and Holmes, K. C., 1969, Structure of dahlemense strain of tobacco mosaic virus: A periodically deformed helix, f. Mol. Biol. 46:99.Google Scholar
  29. Channon, A. G., Cheffins, N. J., Hitchon, G. M., and Barker, J., 1978, The effect of inoculation with an attenuated mutant strain of tobacco mosaic virus on the growth and yield of early glasshouse tomato crops, Ann. Appl. Biol. 88:121.Google Scholar
  30. Chester, K. S., 1936, Separation and analysis of virus strains by means of precipitin tests, Phytopathology 26:778.Google Scholar
  31. Christie, R. G., and Edwardson, J. R., 1977, Light and electron microscopy of plant virus inclusions, Fla Agric. Exp. Stn. Monogr. 9:11.Google Scholar
  32. Cirulli, M., and Alexander, L. J., 1969, Influence of temperature and strain of tobacco mosaic virus on resistance in a tomato breeding line derived from Lycopersicon peruvianum, Phytopathology 59:1287.Google Scholar
  33. Clayberg, C. D., 1960, Relative resistance of Tin and Tm2 to tobacco mosaic virus, Tomato Genetics Co-operative Report 10:13.Google Scholar
  34. Clayberg, C. D., Butler, L., Rick, C. M., and Young, P. A., 1960, Second list of known genes in the tomato, Heredity 51:167.Google Scholar
  35. Clinton, G. P., 1909, Tomato calico, lima bean, string bean and musk melon chlorosis: Peach yellows, tobacco and tomato mosaic, Rep. Conn. Agric. Exp. Stn. 8:854.Google Scholar
  36. Conti, M., and Masenga, V., 1977, Identification and prevalence of pepper viruses in northwest Italy, Phytopathol. Z. 90:212.Google Scholar
  37. Crill, P., Burgis, D. S., Jones, J. P., and Strobel, J. W., 1973, Effect of tomato mosaic virus on yield of fresh-market, machine-harvest type tomatoes, Plant Dis. Rep. 57:78.Google Scholar
  38. Csillery, G., Tobias, I., and Rusko, J., 1983, A new pepper strain of tomato mosaic virus, Acta Phytopathol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 18:195.Google Scholar
  39. Dawson, J. R. O., 1965, Contrasting effects of resistant and susceptible tomato plants on tomato mosaic virus multiplication, Ann. Appl. Biol. 56:485.Google Scholar
  40. Dawson, J. R. O., 1967, The adaptation of tomato mosaic virus to resistant tomato plants, Ann. Appl. Biol. 60:209.Google Scholar
  41. Dawson, J. R. O., Rees, M. W., and Short, M. N., 1975, Protein composition of unusual tobacco mosaic virus strains, Ann. Appl. Biol. 79:189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dawson, J. R. O., Rees, M. W., and Short, M. N., 1979, Lack of correlation between the coat protein composition of tobacco mosaic virus isolates and their ability to infect resistant tomato plants, Ann. Appl. Biol. 91:353.Google Scholar
  43. Fenner, F., 1976, Classification and nomenclature of viruses, Intervirology 7:4.Google Scholar
  44. Fletcher, J. T., 1963, Tobacco mosaic virus of sweet peppers, Plant Pathol. 12:113.Google Scholar
  45. Fletcher, J. T., 1969, Studies on the overwintering of tomato mosaic in root debris, Plant Pathol. 18:97.Google Scholar
  46. Fletcher, J. T., 1973, Tomato mosaic, In: The U.K. Tomato Manual. H. G. Kingham, ed., pp. 196–208, Grower Books, London.Google Scholar
  47. Fletcher, J. T., 1978, The use of avirulent strains to protect plants against the effects of virulent strains, Ann. Appl. Biol. 89:110.Google Scholar
  48. Fletcher, J. T., and Butler, D., 1975, Strain changes in populations of tobacco mosaic virus from tomato crops, Ann. Appl. Biol. 81:409.Google Scholar
  49. Fletcher, J. T., and MacNeill, B. H., 1971, Influence of environment, cultivar and virus strain on the expression of tobacco mosaic virus symptoms in tomato, Can. J. Plant Sci. 51:101.Google Scholar
  50. Fletcher, J. T., and Rowe, J. M., 1975, Observations and experiments on the use of an avirulent mutant strain of tobacco mosaic virus as a means of controlling tomato mosaic, Ann. Appl. Biol. 81:171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Franklin, R. E., 1956, Location of ribonucleic acid in the tobacco mosaic virus particle,Nature (London) 177:928.Google Scholar
  52. Fraser, R. S. S., and Loughlin, S. A. R., 1980, Resistance to tobacco mosaic virus in tomato: Effects of the Tm-1 gene on virus multiplication, J. Gen. Virol. 48:87.Google Scholar
  53. Fraser, R. S. S., and Loughlin, S. A. R., 1982, Effects of temperature on the Tm-1 gene for resistance to tobacco mosaic virus in tomato, Physiol. Plant Pathol. 20:109.Google Scholar
  54. Fraser, R. S. S., Loughlin, S. A. R., and Conner, J. C., 1980, Resistance to tobacco mosaic virus in tomato: Effects of the Tm-1 gene on symptom formation and multiplication of strain 1, J. Gen. Virol. 50:221.Google Scholar
  55. Fukuda, M., Okada, Y., Otsuki, Y., and Takebe, I., 1980, The site of initiation of rod assembly on the RNA of a tomato and a cowpea strain of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 101:493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fukuda, M., Meshi, T., Okada, Y., Otsuki, Y., and Takebe, I., 1981, Correlation between particle multiplicity and location on virion RNA of the assembly initiation site for viruses of tobacco mosaic virus group, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:4231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gibbs, A. J., 1977, Tobamovirus group, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 184.Google Scholar
  58. Gibbs, A. J., 1980, How ancient are the tobamoviruses?, Intervirology 14:101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gilmer, R. M., and Wilks, J. M., 1967a, Seed transmission of tobacco mosaic virus in apple and pear, Phytopathology 57:214.Google Scholar
  60. Gilmer, R. M., and Wilks, J. M., 1967b, Apple chlorotic leaf spot and tobacco mosaic viruses in cherry, Plant Dis. Rep. 51:823.Google Scholar
  61. Gilmer, R. M., and Wilks, J. M., 1968, Transmission of tobacco mosaic virus in grape seeds, Phytopathology 58:277.Google Scholar
  62. Hall, T. J., 1978, Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 1977 39.Google Scholar
  63. Hall, T. J., 1979, Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 1978 40.Google Scholar
  64. Hall, T. J., 1980, Resistance at the Tm-2 locus in the tomato to tomato mosaic virus, Euphytica 29:189.Google Scholar
  65. Hall, T. J., and Bowes, S. A., 1981, Screening for disease resistance in tomato, Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 80:157.Google Scholar
  66. Hamilton, R. I., Edwardson, J. R., Francki, R. I. B., Hsu, H. T., Hull, R., Koenig, R., and Milne, R. G., 1981, Guidelines for the identification and characterisation of plant viruses, J. Gen. Virol. 54:223.Google Scholar
  67. Harris, K. F., and Bradley, R. H. E., 1973, Importance of leaf hairs in the transmission of tobacco mosaic virus by aphids, Virology 52:295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Harrison, B. D., Finch, J. T., Gibbs, A. J., Hollings, M., Shepherd, R. J., Valenta, V., and Wetter, C., 1971, Sixteen groups of plant viruses, Virology 45:356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Henderson Smith, J., 1928, Experiments with a mosaic disease of tomato, Ann. Appl. Biol. 15:155.Google Scholar
  70. Henderson Smith, J., 1930, Intracellular inclusions in mosaic of Sol an um nodi florum, Ann. Appl. Biol. 17:213.Google Scholar
  71. Hennig, B., and Wittmann, H. G., 1972, Tobacco mosaic virus: Mutants and strains, In: Principles and Techniques in Plant Virology. C. I. Kado and H. O. Agrawal, eds., pp. 546–594, Van Nostrand-Reinhold, Princeton, N.J.Google Scholar
  72. Herold, F., and Munz, K., 1967, An unusual kind of crystalline inclusion of tobacco mosaic virus, J. Gen. Virol. 1:375.Google Scholar
  73. Hollings, M., 1957, Reactions of some additional plant viruses in Chenopodium amaranticolor, Plant Pathol. 6:133.Google Scholar
  74. Hollings, M., and Huttinga, H., 1976, Tomato mosaic virus, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 156.Google Scholar
  75. Holmes, K. C., and Franklin, R. E., 1958, The radial density in some strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 6:328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Horvath, J., Horvath, A., Lonhard, M., Mamula, D., and Besada, W. H., 1978, Natural occurrence of a strain of tomato mosaic virus in potato in Hungary, Acta Phytopathol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 13:299.Google Scholar
  77. Jaegle, M., and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1985, Use of ELISA for measuring the extent of serological cross-reactivity between plant viruses, J. Virol. Methods 11:189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Jensen, M. H., 1969, Cross protection as a means of reducing severity of TMV in greenhouse tomatoes, Diss. Abstr. B 29:3991.Google Scholar
  79. Johnson, J., and Ogden, W. B., 1929, The overwintering of the tobacco mosaic virus, Bull. Wis. Agric. Exp. Stn. 95:116.Google Scholar
  80. Jones, L. K., and Burnett, G., 1935, Virous diseases of greenhouse-grown tomatoes, Bull. Wash. State Agric. Exp. Stn. 308:861.Google Scholar
  81. Juretié, N., Horvath, J., Besada, W. H., Horvath, A., and Lonhard, M., 1977, Serological relationship of tomato mosaic virus isolated from potato to two members of tobamovirus group, JIPA. 4:64.Google Scholar
  82. Kassanis, B., and Sheffield, F. M. L., 1941, Variations in the cytoplasmic inclusions induced by three strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Ann. Appl. Biol. 28:360.Google Scholar
  83. Kassanis, B., Woods, R. D., and White, R. F., 1972, Some properties of potato mop-top virus and its serological relationships to tobacco mosaic virus, J. Gen. Virol. 14:123.Google Scholar
  84. Kirkpatrick, H. C., and Lindner, R. C., 1964, Recovery of tobacco mosaic virus from apple, Plant Dis. Rep. 48:855.Google Scholar
  85. Knight, C. A., Silva, D. M., Dahl, D., and Tsugita, A., 1962, Two distinctive strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 16:236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Komochi, S. T., Goto, T., and Oshima, N., 1966, Studies on the control of plant virus diseases by vaccination of attenuated virus. 3. Reduction in fruit setting as a shock reaction resulting from infection of tomato plants with TMV (in Japanese, English summary) J. hort. Assoc. Japan 35:269.Google Scholar
  87. Komuro, Y., Iwaki, M., and Nakahara, M., 1966, Viruses isolated from tomato plants showing mosaic and/or streak in Japan, with special reference to tomato strain of tobacco mosaic virus (in Japanese, English summary). Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 32:130.Google Scholar
  88. Kramer, E., and Wittmann, H. G., 1958, Elektrophoretische Untersuchungen der A-protein dreier Tobakmosaikvirus-Stamme, Z. Naturforsch. 136:30.Google Scholar
  89. Kukla, B. A., Guilley, H. A., Jonard, G. X., Richards, K. E., and Mundry, K. W., 1979, Characterisation of long guanosine-free RNA sequences from the dahlemense and U2 strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Eur. J. Biochem. 98:61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kunkel, L. O., 1934, Studies on acquired immunity with tobacco and aucuba mosaics, Phytopathology 24:437.Google Scholar
  91. Kurachi, K., Funatsu, M., and Hidaka, S., 1972, Partial amino acid sequence of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus coat protein, Agric. Biol. Chem. 36:1109.Google Scholar
  92. Leonard, D. A., and Zaitlin, M., 1982, A temperature sensitive strain of tobacco mosaic virus defective in cell-to-cell movement generates an altered viral-coded protein, Virology 117:416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. MacNeill, B. H., 1962, A specialized tomato form of the tobacco mosaic virus in Canada, Can. J. Bot. 40:49.Google Scholar
  94. MacNeill, B. H., and Fletcher, J. T., 1971, Changes in strain characteristics of tobacco mosaic virus after passage through grafted tomato hosts, Phytopathology 61:130.Google Scholar
  95. MacNeill, B. H., and Ismen, H., 1960, Studies on the virus-streak syndrome in tomatoes, Can. J. Bot. 38:277.Google Scholar
  96. McRitchie, J. J., and Alexander, L. J., 1963, Host-specific Lycopersicon strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Phytopathology 53:394.Google Scholar
  97. Mayhew, D. E., Hedin, P., and Thomas, D. L., 1984, Corky ringspot: A new strain of tomato mosaic virus in California, Plant Dis. 68:623.Google Scholar
  98. Melchers, G., Schramm, G., Trusnit, H., and Frederick-Freska, H., 1940, Biological, chemical and electron-microscopical investigation of a mosaic from tomatoes, Biol. Zentralbl. 60:524.Google Scholar
  99. Meshi, T., Ohno, T., and Okada, Y., 1982a, Nucleotide sequence and its character of cistron coding for the 30K protein of tobacco mosaic virus, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 92:1441.Google Scholar
  100. Meshi, T., Ohno, T., and Okada, Y., 1982b, Nucleotide sequence of the 30K protein cistron of cowpea strain of tobacco mosaic virus, Nucleic Acids Res. 10:6111.Google Scholar
  101. Meshi, T., Kiyama, R., Ohno, T., and Okada, Y., 1983, Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein cistron and the 3’ non-coding region of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (watermelon strain) RNA, Virology 127:54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Migliori, A., Ginoux, G., Peyrierc, J., Marron, J., Musard, M., and Fauvrel, M., 1972, Application de la premunition contre le virus de la mosaique du tabac dans les cultures de tornate sous serre, Rev. Horticole 132:15.Google Scholar
  103. Milicic, D., and Juretic, N., 1971, Zelleinschluss der Viren der Tabakmosaik-Gruppe, Tagungsber. Dtsch. Akad. Landwirtschaftswiss. Berlin 115:141.Google Scholar
  104. Miller, P. M., and Thomberry, H. H., 1958, A new viral disease of tomato and pepper, Phytopathology 48:665.Google Scholar
  105. Mosch, W. H. M., Huttinga, H., and Rast, A. T. B., 1973, Some chemical and physical properties of 18 tobacco mosaic virus isolates from tomato, Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 79:104.Google Scholar
  106. Mossop, D. W., and Proctor, C. H., 1975, Cross-protection of glasshouse tomatoes against tobacco mosaic virus, N.Z. J. Exp. Agric. 3:343.Google Scholar
  107. Motoyoshi, F., and Oshima, N., 1975, Infection with tobacco mosaic virus of leaf mesophyll protoplasts from susceptible and resistant lines of tomato, J. Gen. Virol. 29:81.Google Scholar
  108. Motoyoshi, F., and Oshima, N., 1977, Expression of genetically controlled resistance to tobacco mosaic virus infection in isolated tomato leaf mesophyll protoplasts, J. Gen. Virol. 34:499.Google Scholar
  109. Mundry, K. W., 1965, A model of the coat protein cistron of tobacco mosaic virus and its biochemical investigation, Z. Vererbungsl. 97:281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Nicolaieff, A., and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1980, Specificity of trapping of plant viruses on antibody-coated electron microscope grids, Ann. Virol. (Inst. Pasteur) 131:95.Google Scholar
  111. Nishiguchi, M., Nozu, Y., and Oshima, N., 1984, Comparative study on coat proteins of an attenuated, a temperature sensitive and their parent strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Phytopathol. Z. 109:104.Google Scholar
  112. Nitzany, F. E., 1960, Transmission of tobacco mosaic virus through tomato seed and virus inactivation by methods of seed extraction and seed treatments, Ktavim Rec. Agric. Res. Stn. 10:63.Google Scholar
  113. Ohno, T., Takamatsu, N., Meshi, T., Okada, Y., Nishiguchi, M., and Kiho, Y., 1983, Single amino acid substitution in 30K protein of TMV defective in virus transport function, Virology 131:255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Ohno, T., Aoyagi, M., Yamanashi, Y., Saito, H., Ikawa, S., Neshi, T., and Okada, Y., 1984, Nucleotide sequence of the tobacco mosaic virus (tomato strain) genome and comparison with the common strain genome. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 96:1915.Google Scholar
  115. Opel, H., Kegler, H., and Richter, J., 1969, Occurrence and characterization of TMV strains of pome fruit, Acta Phytopathol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 4:1.Google Scholar
  116. Oshima, N., 1975, The control of tomato mosaic disease with attenuated virus of tomato strain of TMV, Rev. Plant Prot. Res. 8:126.Google Scholar
  117. Oshima, N., 1981, Control of tomato mosaic disease by attenuated virus, Jpn. Agric. Res. Q. 14:222.Google Scholar
  118. Oshima, N., Komoti, S., and Goto, T., 1965, Study on control of plant virus diseases by vaccination of attenuated virus. (i) Control of tomato mosaic disease, Bull. Hokkaido Agric. Exp. Stn. 85:23.Google Scholar
  119. Oshima, N., Tanada, T., and Nozu, Y., 1976, Coat protein of an attenuated tomato strain (L11A)of TMV, Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 42:62.Google Scholar
  120. Oster, G., 1951, The isoelectric points of some strains of tobacco mosaic virus, J. Biol. Chem. 190:55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Paludan, N., 1968, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV): Investigation concerning TMV in different plant genera, the virulence of TMV strains, virus attenuation by heat treatment, cross protection and yield (Danish, English summ.), Tidsskr. Planteavl 72:69.Google Scholar
  122. Paludan, N., 1973, Tobak-mosaik-virus: Infektionsforsog, krydsbeskyttelse, smittetid- spunkt og udbytte med tomatlinier of TMV hos tomat, Tidsskr. Planteavl 77:495.Google Scholar
  123. Palukaitis, P., and Symons, R. H., 1980, Nucleotide sequence homology of thirteen tobamovirus RNAs as determined by hybridization analysis with complementary DNA, Virology 107:354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Pecaut, P., 1964, Résistance a la mosaique du tabac, Rep. Stn. d’Amel. PI. Maraich. (INRA) 61:17.Google Scholar
  125. Pecaut, P., 1964, Tomate: Selection pour la resistance aux maladies, Rep. Stn. d’Amel. Pl. Maraich. (INRA) 63:51.Google Scholar
  126. Pelham, J., 1966, Resistance in tomato to tobacco mosaic virus, Euphytica 15:258.Google Scholar
  127. Pelham, J., 1972, Strain-genotype interaction of tobacco mosaic virus in tomato, Ann. Appl. Biol. 71:219.Google Scholar
  128. Pelham, J., Fletcher, J. T., and Hawkins, J. H., 1970, The establishment of a new strain of tobacco mosaic virus resulting from the use of resistant varieties of tomato, Ann. Appl. Biol. 65:293.Google Scholar
  129. Phillip, M. J., Honma, S., and Murakishi, H. H., 1965, Studies on the inheritance of resistance to tobacco virus in the tomato, Euphytica 14:231.Google Scholar
  130. Price, W. C., and Fenne, S. B., 1951, Tomato rosette, a severe disease caused by a strain of tobacco mosaic virus, Phytopathology 41:1091.Google Scholar
  131. Rast, A. T. B., 1965, A yellow ringspot strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) from tomato, Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 71:91.Google Scholar
  132. Rast, A. T. B., 1967, Yield of glasshouse tomatoes as affected by strains of tobaco mosaic virus, Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 73:147.Google Scholar
  133. Rast, A. T. B., 1972, M11–16, an artificial symptomless mutant of tobacco mosaic virus for seedling inoculation of tomato crops, Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 78:110.Google Scholar
  134. Rast, A. T. B., 1973, Systemic infection of tomato plants with tobacco mosaic virus following inoculation of seedling roots, Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 79:5.Google Scholar
  135. Rast, A. T. B., 1975, Variability of tobacco mosaic virus in relation to control of tomato mosaic in glasshouse tomato crops by resistance breeding and cross protection, Agric. Res. Rep. 96:834.Google Scholar
  136. Sheffield, F. M. L., 1931, The formation of intracellular inclusions in solanaceous hosts infected with aucuba mosaic of tomato, Ann. Appl. Biol. 18:471.Google Scholar
  137. Sugiyama, T., and Fraenkel-Conrat, H., 1963, The end-groups of tobacco mosaic virus RNA. II. Nature of the 3’-linked chain end in TMV and of both ends in four strains, Biochemistry 2:332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Takamatsu, N., Ohno, T., Meshi, T., and Okada, Y., 1983, Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the 30K and the coat protein cistron of TMV (tomato strain) genome, Nucleic Acids Res. 11:3767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Taylor, R. H., Grogan, R. G., and Kimble, K. A., 1961, Transmission of tobacco mosaic virus in tomato seed, Phytopathology 51:837.Google Scholar
  140. Termohlen, G., and van Dorst, H. J. M., 1959, Verschillen tussen Lycopersicum virus 1 en Nicotiana virus 1, Jversl. Proefstn. Groenten Fruitteelt Glas, Naaldwijk 58:125.Google Scholar
  141. Thomas, B. J., 1973, Tomato mosaic virus, Ann. Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 72:30.Google Scholar
  142. Thomas, B. J., 1974, Tobacco (tomato) mosaic virus, Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 73:42.Google Scholar
  143. Tomaru, K., Suyama, K., and Kubo, S., 1970, Efficiency of local lesion formation and multiplication of tobacco mosaic virus strains in the inoculated leaves of some host plants [in Japanese; English summary], Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 36:74.Google Scholar
  144. Tsugita, A., 1962, The proteins of mutants of TMV: Classification of spontaneous and chemically evoked strains, J. Mol. Biol. 5:293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Upstone, M. E., 1974, Effects of inoculation with the Dutch mutant strain of tobacco mosaic virus on the cropping of commercial glasshouse tomatoes, Rep. Agric. Dev. Adv. Serv. 72:162.Google Scholar
  146. Vanderveken, J., and Coutissi, S., 1975, Trial of the control of tobacco mosaic virus in tomato by cross protection, Meded. Fac. Landbouwwet. Rijksuniv. Gent 40:791.Google Scholar
  147. Van De Walle, M. J., and Siegel, A., 1976, A study of nucleotide sequence homology between strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 73:413.Google Scholar
  148. Van De Walle, M. J., and Siegel, A., 1982, Relationships between strains of tobacco mosaic virus and other selected plant viruses, Phytopathology 72:390.Google Scholar
  149. van Dorst, H. J. M., 1970, Virus diseases of cucumbers, Jversl. Proefstn. Groenten Fruitteelt Glas, Naaldwijk, 69:75.Google Scholar
  150. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1967, Serological studies on naturally occurring strains and chemically induced mutants of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 31:467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1975, Antigenic relationships between strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 64:415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1981, Tobamoviruses, In: Handbook of Plant Virus Infections. E. Kurstak, ed., p. 541, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  153. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., and Burckard, J., 1980, Detection of a wide spectrum of tobacco mosaic virus strains by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Virology 106:327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., and von Wechmar, M. V., 1974, Serological relationships of strains of tobacco mosaic virus, S. Afr. J. Sci. 70:59.Google Scholar
  155. van Winckel, A., 1965, Tobakmosaiekvirus op Tomatenzaad, Agricultura (Louvain) 13:721.Google Scholar
  156. van Winckel, A., 1967a, Bijdrage tot de studie van het tabakmozaiekvirus (TMV) bij tomaten, Thesis, Kath. Univ. Leuven.Google Scholar
  157. van Winckel, A., 1967b, Invloed van het TMV op de vegetatieve ontwikkeling van tomatenplanten, Agricultura (Louvain) 15:67.Google Scholar
  158. van Winckel, A., 1968, Natuurlijke inactivering van het tabakmozaiekvirus (TMV) op tomatenzaad, Parasitica 24:1.Google Scholar
  159. Walter, J. M., 1956, Hereditary resistance to tobacco mosaic virus in tomato, Phytopathology 46:513.Google Scholar
  160. Walter, J. M., 1967, Hereditary resistance to disease in tomato, Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 5:131.Google Scholar
  161. Wang, A. L., and Knight, C. A., 1967, Analysis of protein components of tomato strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 31:101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Warmke, H. E., 1967, Aucuba strain of tobacco mosaic virus in an unusual aggregate, Science 156:262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Warmke, H. E., 1968, Fine structure of inclusions formed by the aucuba strain of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 34:149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Warmke, H. E., 1969, A reinterpretation of amorphous inclusions in the aucuba strain of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 39:695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Warmke, H. E., 1974, Direction of rotation of aucuba (TMV) angled layer aggregates, Virology 59:591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Westerdijk, J., 1910, Die Mosaikkrankheit der Tomaten, Med. Phytopathol. Lab. `Willie Commelin Scholten’, Baarn 1.Google Scholar
  167. Wetter, C., 1984, Serological identification of four tobamoviruses infecting pepper, Plant Dis. 68:597.Google Scholar
  168. Wetter, C., Conti, M., Altschuh, D., Tabillion, R., and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1984, Pepper mild mottle virus, a tobamovirus infecting pepper cultivars in Sicily, Phytopathology 74:405.Google Scholar
  169. Wittmann-Liebold, B., and Wittmann, H. G., 1963, Die primäre Proteinstruktur von Stämmen des Tabakmosaikvirus. Aminosäuresequenzen des Proteins des Tabakmosaikvirus stammes Dahlemense. Teil III. Diskussion der Ergebnisse. Z. Vererbungsl. 94:427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Wittmann-Liebold, B., and Wittmann, H. G., 1967, Coat proteins of strains of two RNA viruses: Comparison of their amino acid sequences, Mol. Gen. Genet. 100:358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Zaitlin, M., Beachy, R. N., and Bruening, G., 1977, Lack of molecular hybridisation between RNAs of two strains of TMV: Reconsideration of the criteria for strain relationships, Virology 82:237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Zimmerman-Gries, S., and Pelowsky, M., 1975, Experiments for protecting tomatoes from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) by prior infection with the avirulent strain M11–16, Phytoparasitica 3:75.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan A. Brunt
    • 1
  1. 1.Glasshouse Crops Research InstituteLittlehampton, West SussexEngland

Personalised recommendations