Advertisement

Tobacco Mosaic Virus Infectivity and Replication

  • Peter Palukaitis
  • Milton Zaitlin
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)

Abstract

Tobacco mosaic was first characterized as an infectious disease in 1886 by Mayer and the virus has been the subject of intensive investigation since the 1930s. Early studies focused on chemistry and structure, and much of our fundamental knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of simple RNA-containing viruses derives from TMV. While the large amounts of easily extracted, easily purified virus available in high yield facilitated these studies, the complex nature of the virus-host system has slowed our understanding of the details of TMV replication (and of all other plant viruses, for that matter); for instance, when a leaf is inoculated with virus, initially only a very small proportion of the cells become infected. These initial centers serve as foci for the subsequent rounds of replication in adjacent cells. Thus, early events in the few initially infected cells must be detected against an overwhelming background of uninfected cells. Further difficulties arise from the relatively slow rate of virus replication when compared with animal or bacterial viruses and, most troublesome, the fact that plant virus infection does not shut down host protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Thus, it is sometimes not easy to distinguish virus-directed proteins and nucleic acids from those of the host. Fortunately, recently developed technologies such as molecular hybridization and Western blotting having solved some of these problems.

Keywords

Coat Protein Tobacco Mosaic Virus Cucumber Mosaic Virus Subgenomic RNAs Brome Mosaic Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aoki, S., and Takebe, I., 1975, Replication of tobacco mosaic virus RNA in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts inoculated in vitro, Virology 65: 343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asselin, A., and Zaitlin, M., 1978, Characterization of a second protein associated with virions of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 91: 173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atabekov, J. G., and Dorokhov, Y. L., 1984, Plant virus-specific transport function and resistance of plants to viruses, Adv. Virus. Res. 29: 313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beachy, R. N., and Zaitlin, M., 1975, Replication of tobacco mosaic virus. VI. Replicative intermediate and TMV-RNA-related RNAs associated with polyribosomes, Virology 63: 84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beachy, R. N., and Zaitlin, M., 1977, Characterization and in vitro translation of the RNAs from less-than-full-length, virus-related nucleoprotein rods present in tobacco mosaic virus preparations, Virology 81: 160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beachy, R. N., Zaitlin, M., Bruening, G., and Israel, H. W., 1976, A genetic map for the cowpea strain of TMV, Virology 73: 498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, D. L., Knorr, D., Grantham, G., and Dawson, W. O., 1985, Synthesis of full-length cDNA clones of TMV, Phytopathology (Abstract) 75: 1334.Google Scholar
  8. Beier, H., Barciszewska, M., Krupp, G., Mitnacht, R., and Gross, H. J., 1984, UAG read-through during TMV RNA translation: Isolation and sequence of two tRNAs Tyr with suppressor activity from tobacco plants, EMBO J. 3: 351.Google Scholar
  9. Bennett, C. W., 1940, The relation of viruses to plant tissues, Bot. Rev. 6: 427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bevan, M. W., Mason, S. E., and Godet, P., 1985, Expression of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein by a cauliflower mosaic virus promoter in plants transformed by Agrobacterium, EMBO J. 4: 1921.Google Scholar
  11. Brants, D. H., 1964, The susceptibility of tobacco and bean leaves to tobacco mosaic virus infection in relation to the condition of ectodesmata, Virology 23: 588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Calvete, J. S., and Wieringa-Brants, D. H., 1984, Infection and necrosis of cowpea mesophyll cells by tobacco necrosis virus and two strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 90: 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Capoor, S. P., 1949, The movement of tobacco mosaic viruses and potato virus X through tomato plants, Ann. Appl. Biol. 36: 307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carr, R. J., and Kim, K. S., 1983, Evidence that bean golden mosaic virus invades non-phloem tissue in double infections with tobacco mosaic virus, J. Gen. Virol. 64: 2489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Caspar, D. L. D., 1963, Assembly and stability of the tobacco mosaic virus particle, Adv. Protein Chem. 18: 37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Collmer, C. W., Vogt, V. M., and Zaitlin, M., 1983, H-protein, a minor protein of TMV virions, contains sequences of the viral coat protein, Virology 126: 429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cornelissen, B. J. C., and Bol, J. F., 1984, Homology between the proteins encoded by tobacco mosaic virus and two tricornaviruses, Plant Mol. Biol. 3: 379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dawson, W. O., and White, J. L., 1979, A temperature-sensitive mutant of tobacco mosaic virus deficient in synthesis of single-stranded RNA, Virology 93: 104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Zoeten, G. A., 1981, Early events in plant virus infection, in: Plant Diseases and Vectors: Ecology and Epidemiology ( K. Maramorosch and K. F. Harris, eds.), pp. 221–239, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. de Zoeten, G. A., and Gaard, G., 1984, The presence of viral antigen in the apoplast of systemically virus-infected plants, Virus Res. 1: 713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dorssers, L., van der Krol, S., van der Meer, J., van Kammen, A., and Zabel, P., 1984, Purification of cowpea mosaic virus RNA replication complex: Identification of a virus-encoded 110,000-dalton polypeptide responsible for RNA chain elongation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 1951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Evans, R. K., Haley, B. E., and Roth, D. A., 1985, Photoaffinity labeling of a viral induced protein from tobacco: Characterization of nucleotide-binding properties, J. Biol. Chem. 260: 7800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Fleck, J., Dun, A., and Hirth, L., 1983, Gene expression in freshly isolated protoplasts from Nicotiana sylvestris, in: Proceedings 6th International Protoplast Symposium, pp. 240–241.Google Scholar
  24. Florentz, C., Briand, J. P., and Giege, R., 1984, Possible functional role of viral tRNA-like structures, FEBS Lett. 176: 295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fraenkel-Conrat, H., and Williams, R. C., 1955, Reconstitution of active tobacco mosaic virus from its inactive protein and nucleic acid components, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 41: 690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fry, P. R., and Matthews, R. E. F., 1963, Timing of some early events following inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 19: 461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garcia-Arenal, F., Palukaitis, P., and Zaitlin, M., 1984, Strains and mutants of tobacco mosaic virus are both found in virus derived from single-lesion-passaged inoculum, Virology 132: 131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gamier, M., Mamoun, R., and Bové, J. M., 1980, TYMV RNA replication in vivo: Replicative intermediate is mainly single stranded, Virology 104: 357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gianinazzi, S., 1984, Genetic and molecular aspects of resistance induced by infections or chemicals, in: Plant—Microbe Interactions: Molecular and Genetic Perspectives ( T. Kosuge and E. W. Nester, eds.), Volume 1, pp. 321–342, Macmillan Co., New York.Google Scholar
  30. Goelet, P., Lomonossoff, G. P., Butler, P. J. G., Akam, M. E., Gait, M. J., and Kam, J., 1982, Nucleotide sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 5818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gonda, T. J., and Symons, R. H., 1979, Cucumber mosaic virus replication in cowpea protoplasts: Time course of virus, coat protein and RNA synthesis, J. Gen. Virol. 45: 723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Guilley, H., Jonard, G., Kukla, B., and Richards, K. E., 1979, Sequence of 1000 nucleotides at the 3’ end of tobacco mosaic virus RNA, Nucleic Acids Res. 6: 1287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gunning, B. E. S., and Overall, R. L., 1983, Plasmodesmata and cell-to-cell transport in plants, Bioscience 33: 260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Haenni, A. L., Joshi, S., and Chapeville, F., 1982, tRNA like structures in genomes of RNA viruses, Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 27: 85.Google Scholar
  35. Hall, T. C., 1979, Transfer RNA-like structures in viral genomes, Int. Rev. Cytol. 60: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hamilton, R. I., 1980, Defenses triggered by previous invaders: Viruses, in: Plant Disease: An Advanced Treatise ( J. G. Horsfall and E. B. Cowling, eds.), Volume V, pp. 279–303, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Haseloff, J., Goelet, P, Zimmern, D., Ahlquist, P., Dasgupta, R., and Kaesberg, P., 1984, Striking similarities in amino acid sequence among nonstructural proteins encoded by RNA viruses that have dissimilar genomic organization, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 4358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hooft van Huijsduijnen, R. A. M., Cornelissen, B. J. C., van Loon, L. C., van Boom, J. H., Tromp, M., and Bol, J. F., 1985, Virus-induced synthesis of messenger RNAs for precursors of pathogenesis-related proteins in tobacco, EMBO J. 4: 2167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hunter, T. R., Hunt, T., Knowland, J., and Zimmern, D., 1976, Messenger RNA for the coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus, Nature (London) 260: 759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hunter, T., Jackson, R., and Zimmern, D., 1983, Multiple proteins and subgenomic mRNAs may be derived from a single open reading frame on tobacco mosaic virus RNA, Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Izant, J. G., and Weintraub, H., 1984, Inhibition of thymidine kinase gene expression by anti-sense RNA: A molecular approach to genetic analysis, Cell 36: 1007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jackson, A. O., Mitchell, D. M., and Siegel, A., 1971, Replication of tobacco mosaic virus. I. Isolation and characterization of double-stranded forms of ribonucleic acid, Virology 45: 182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jonard, G., Richards, K. E., Guilley, H., and Hirth, L., 1977, Sequence from the assembly nucleation region of TMV RNA, Cell 11: 483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Joshi, S., Pleij, C. W. A., Haenni, H. L., Chapeville, F., and Bosch, L., 1983, Properties of the tobacco mosaic virus intermediate length RNA-2 and its translation, Virology 127: 100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kado, C. I., and Knight, C. A., 1966, Location of a local lesion gene in tobacco mosaic virus RNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 55: 1276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kamen, R. I., 1975, Structures and function of the QB replicase, in: RNA Phages N. D. Zinder, ed.), pp. 203–234, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.Google Scholar
  47. Keith, J., and Fraenkel-Conrat, H., 1975, Tobacco mosaic virus RNA carries 5’-terminal triphosphorylated guanosine blocked by 5’-linked 7-methylguanosine, FEBS Lett. 57: 31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kiberstis, P. A., Loesch-Fries, L. S., and Hall, T. C., 1981, Viral protein synthesis in barley protoplasts inoculated with native and fractionated brome mosaic virus RNA, Virology 112: 804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kiberstis, P. A., Pessi, A., Atherton, E., Jackson, R., Hunter, T., and Zimmern, D., 1983, Analysis of in vitro and in vivo products of the TMV 30kDa open reading frame using antisera raised against a synthetic peptide, FEBS Lett. 164: 355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kuhn, C. W., Wyatt, S. D., and Brantley, B. B., 1981, Genetic control of symptoms, movement, and virus accumulation in cowpea plants infected with cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, Phytopathology 71: 1310.Google Scholar
  51. Leonard, D. A., and Zaitlin, M., 1982, A temperature sensitive strain of tobacco mosaic virus defective in cell-to-cell movement generates an altered viral-coded protein, Virology 117: 416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lucas, J., Camacho Henriquez, A., Lottspeich, F., Henschen, A., and Sänger, H. L., 1985, Amino acid sequence of the ‘pathogenesis-related’ leaf protein p14 from viroid-infected tomato reveals a new type of structurally unfamiliar proteins, EMBO J. 4: 2745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. McKinney, H. H., and Clayton, E. E., 1945, Genotype and temperature in relation to symptoms caused in Nicotiana by the mosaic virus, J. Hered. 36: 323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Matthews, R. E. F., 1981, Plant Virology, 2nd ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Mayer, A., 1886, Über die Mosaikkrankheit des Tabaks, Landwirtsch. Vers. Stn. 32: 451.Google Scholar
  56. Melton, D. A., 1985, Injected anti-sense RNAs specifically block messenger RNA translation in vivo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Merkens, W. S. W., de Zoeten, G. A., and Gaard, G., 1972, Observations on ectodesmata and the virus infection process, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 41: 397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miller, W. A., Dreher, T. W., and Hall, T. C., 1985, Synthesis of brome mosaic virus subgenomic RNA in vitro by internal initiation on —) sense genomic RNA, Nature (London) 313: 68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mizuno, T., Chou, M.-Y., and Inouye, M., 1984, A unique mechanism regulating gene expression: Translational inhibition by a complementary RNA transcript (micRNA), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mouches, C., Candresse, T., and Bové, J. M., 1984, Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA-replicase contains host and virus-encoded subunits, Virology 134: 78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nassuth, A., and Bol, J. F., 1983, Altered balance of the synthesis of plus-and minus-strand RNAs induced by RNAs 1 and 2 of alfalfa mosaic virus in the absence of RNA 3, Virology 124: 75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nilsson-Tillgren, T., 1970, Studies on the biosynthesis of TMV. III. Isolation and characterization of the replicative form and the replicative intermediate RNA, Mol. Gen. Genet. 109: 246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nilsson-Tillgren, T., Kielland-Brandt, M. C., and Bekke, B., 1974, Studies on the biosynthesis of tobacco mosaic virus. VI. On the subcellular localization of double-stranded viral RNA, Mol. Gen. Genet. 128: 157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nishiguchi, M., Motoyoshi, F., and Oshima, N., 1978, Behavior of a temperature sensitive strain of tobacco mosaic virus in tomato leaves and protoplasts, J. Gen. Virol. 39: 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nishiguchi, M., Motoyoshi, F., and Oshima, N., 1980, Further investigation of a temperature-sensitive strain of tobacco mosaic virus: Its behavior in tomato leaf epidermis, J. Gen. Virol. 46: 497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nishiguchi, M., Kikuchi, S., Kiho, Y., Ohno, T., Meshi, T., and Okada, Y., 1985, Molecular basis of plant viral virulence: The complete nucleotide sequence of an attenuated strain of tobacco mosaic virus, Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 5585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nozu, Y., Olmo, T., and Okada, Y., 1970, Amino acid sequences of some common Japanese strains of tobacco mosaic virus, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 68: 39.Google Scholar
  68. Öberg, B., and Philipson, L., 1972, Binding of histidine to tobacco mosaic virus RNA, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 48: 927.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ogawa, M., and Sakai, F., 1984, A messenger RNA for tobacco mosaic virus coat protein in infected tobacco mesophyll protoplasts. II. Time course of its synthesis, Phytopathol. Z. 109: 193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ogawa, M., Sakai, F., and Takebe, I., 1983, A messenger RNA for tobacco mosaic virus coat protein in infected tobacco mesophyll protoplasts, Phytopathol. Z. 107: 146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ohno, T., Takamatsu, N., Meshi, T., Okada, Y., Nishiguichi, M., and Kiho, Y., 1983, Single amino acid substitution in 30K protein of TMV defective in virus transport function, Virology 131: 255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ooshika, I., Watanabe, Y., Meshi, T., Okada, Y., Igano, K., Inouye, K., and Yoshida, N., 1984, Identification of the 30K protein of TMV by immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against a synthetic peptide, Virology 132: 71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Otsuki, Y., and Takebe, I., 1978, Production of mixedly coated particles in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts doubly infected by strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 84: 162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Palukaitis, P., and Zaitlin, M., 1984, A model to explain the “crossprotection” phenomenon shown by plant viruses and viroids, in: Plant—Microbe Interactions: Molecular and Genetic Perspectives ( T. Kosuge and E. W. Nester, eds.), Volume I, pp. 420–429, Macmillan Co., New York.Google Scholar
  75. Palukaitis, P., Garcia-Arenal, F., Sulzinski, M. A., and Zaitlin, M., 1983, Replication of tobacco mosaic virus. VII. Further characterization of single-and double-stranded virus-related RNAs from TMV-infected plants, Virology 131: 533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Parent, J.-G., and Asselin, A., 1984, Detection of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR or b) and of other proteins in the intercellular fluid of hypersensitive plants infected with tobacco mosaic virus, Can. J. Bot. 62: 564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Paterson, R., and Knight, C. A., 1975, Protein synthesis in tobacco protoplasts infected with tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 64: 10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pelham, H. R. B., 1978, Leaky UAG termination codon in tobacco mosaic virus RNA, Nature (London) 272: 469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pestka, S., Daugherty, B. L., Jung, V., Hotto, K., and Pestka, R. K., 1984, Anti-mRNA: Specific inhibition of translation of single mRNA molecules, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 7525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ralph, R. K., Bullivant, S., and Wojcik, S. Y., 1971, Cytoplasmic membranes, a possible site of tobacco mosaic virus RNA replication, Virology 43: 713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rao, A. L. N., and Francki, R. I. B., 1981, Comparative studies on tomato aspermy and cucumber mosaic viruses. VI. Partial compatibility of genome segments from the two viruses, Virology 114: 573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rappaport, I., and Wu, J.-H., 1962, Release of inhibited virus infection following irradiation with ultraviolet light, Virology 17: 411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rezaian, M. A., Williams, R. H., Gordon, K. H., Gould, A. R., and Symons, R. H., 1984, Nucleotide sequence of cucumber mosaic virus RNA2 reveals a translation product significantly homologous to corresponding proteins of other viruses, Eur. J. Biochem. 143: 277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Richards, O. C., Martin, S. C., Jense, H. G., and Ehrenfeld, E., 1984, Structure of poliovirus replicative intermediate RNA, J. Mol. Biol. 173: 325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rietveld, K., Linschooten, K., Pleij, C. W. A., and Bosch, L., 1984, The three-dimensional folding of the tRNA-like structure of tobacco mosaic virus RNA: A new building principle applied twice, EMBO J. 3: 2613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Rosenberg, U. B., Preiss, A., Seifert, E., Jäckle, H., and Knipple, D. C., 1985, Production of phencopies by Krüppel antisense RNA injection into Drosophila embryos, Nature (London) 313: 703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sakai, F., and Takebe, I., 1972, A non-coat protein synthesized in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts infected by tobacco mosaic virus, Mol. Gen. Genet. 118: 93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sakai, F., and Takebe, I., 1974, Protein synthesis in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts induced by tobacco mosaic virus infection, Virology 62: 426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Samuel, G., 1934, The movement of tobacco mosaic virus within the plant, Ann. Appl. Biol. 21: 90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sarachu, A. N., Nassuth, A., Roosien, J., Van Vloten-Doting, L., and Bol, J. F., 1983, Replication of temperature-sensitive mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus in protoplasts, Virology 125: 64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Scalla, R., Romaine, P., Asselin, A., Rigaud, J., and Zaitlin, M., 1978, An in vivo study of a non-structural polypeptide synthesized upon TMV infection and its identification with a polypeptide synthesized in vitro from TMV RNA, Virology 91: 182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Siegel, A., Zaitlin, M., and Sehgal, O. P., 1962, The isolation of defective tobacco mosaic virus strains, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 48: 1845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Siegel, A., Hari, V., and Kolacz, K., 1978, The effect of tobacco mosaic virus infection on host and virus-specific protein synthesis in protoplasts, Virology 85: 494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sulzinski, M. A., and Zaitlin, M., 1982, Tobacco mosaic virus replication in resistant and susceptible plants: In some resistant species virus is confined to a small number of initially infected cells, Virology 121: 12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sulzinski, M. A., Gabard, K., Palukaitis, P., and Zaitlin, M., 1985, Replication of tobacco mosaic virus. VIII. Characterization of a third subgenomic TMV RNA, Virology 145: 132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Takebe, I., 1977, Protoplasts in the study of plant virus replication, Comprehensive Virology 11: 237.Google Scholar
  97. Takebe, I., and Otsuki, Y., 1968, Isolation of tobacco mesophyll cells in intact and active state, Plant Cell Physiol. 9: 115.Google Scholar
  98. Taliansky, M. E., Malyshenko, S. I., Pshennikova, E. S., and Atabekov, J. G., 1982, Plant virus-specific transport function. II. A factor controlling virus host range, Virology 122: 327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Thatch, S. S., and Thatch, R. E., 1973, Mechanism of viral replication. I. Structure of replication complexes of R17 bacteriophage, J. Mol. Biol. 81: 367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Thomas, P. E., and Fulton, R. W., 1968, Correlation of ectodesmata number with nonspecific resistance to initial virus infection, Virology 34: 459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. van Telgen, H. J., Goldbach, R. W., and van Loon, L. C., 1985, The 126,000 molecular weight protein of tobacco mosaic virus is associated with host chromatin in mosaic-diseased tobacco plants, Virology 143: 612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Walker, H. L., and Pirone, T. P., 1972, Number of TMV particles required to infect locally or systemically susceptible tobacco cultivars, J. Gen. Virol. 17: 241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Watanabe, Y., and Okada, Y., 1984, Paper presented at the Sixth International Congress of Virology, Sendai, Japan.Google Scholar
  104. Watanabe, Y., Emori, Y., Ooshika, I., Meshi, T., Ohno, T., and Okada, Y., 1984a, Synthesis of TMV-specific RNAs and proteins at the early stage of infection in tobacco protoplasts: Transient expression of the 30K protein and its mRNA, Virology 133: 18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Watanabe, Y., Meshi, T., and Okada, Y., 1984b. The initiation site for transcription of the TMV 30-kDa protein messenger RNA, FEBS Lett. 173: 247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Watts, J. W., and King, J. M., 1984, The effect of charge on infection of tobacco protoplasts by bromoviruses, J. Gen. Virol. 65: 1709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Weintraub, M., Ragetli, H. W. J., and Leung, E., 1976, Elongated virus particles in plasmodesmata, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 56: 351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wilson, T. M. A., 1984a, Cotranslational disassembly of tobacco mosaic virus in vitro, Virology 137: 255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wilson, T. M. A., 1984b, Cotranslational disassembly increases the efficiency of expression of TMV RNA in wheat germ cell-free extracts, Virology 138: 353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wilson, T. M. A., 1985, Nucleocapsid disassembly and early gene expression by positive-strand RNA viruses, J. Gen. Virol. 66: 1201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wilson, T. M. A., and Watkins, P. A. C., 1985, Cotranslational disassembly of a cowpea strain (Cc) of TMV: Evidence that viral RNA–protein interactions at the assembly origin block ribosome translocation in vitro, Virology 145: 346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wu, A.-Z., Dai, R.-M., Shen, X.-R., and Sun, Y.-K., 1984, The location and function of the 5’-cap structure of the RNA of tobacco mosaic virus in the virion, in: Abstracts of the Sixth International Congress of Virology, Sendai, Japan, p. 231.Google Scholar
  113. Young, N. D., and Zaitlin, M., 1986, An analysis of tobacco mosaic virus replicative structures synthesized in vitro, Plant Molecular Biology, in press.Google Scholar
  114. Zaitlin, M., 1977, Replication of plant viruses—An overview, in: Beltsville Symposia in Agricultural Research I. Virology in Agriculture ( J. A. Romberger, ed.), pp. 33–46, Alenheld, Osmun, Montclair, N.J.Google Scholar
  115. Zaitlin, M., 1983, Functions of the translation products of RNA plant viruses, Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 1: 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zaitlin, M., and Hariharasubramanian, V., 1972, A gel electrophoretic analysis of proteins from plants infected with tobacco mosaic and potato spindle tuber viruses, Virology 47: 296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zaitlin, M., Duda, C. T., and Petti, M. A., 1973, Replication of tobacco mosaic virus. V. Properties of the bound and solubilized replicase, Virology 53: 300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zaitlin, M., Beachy, R. N., and Bruening, G., 1977, Lack of molecular hybridization between RNAs of two strains of TMV: A reconsideration of the criteria for strain relationships, Virology 82: 237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zelcer, A., Weaber, K. F., Balâzs, E., and Zaitlin, M., 1981, The detection and characterization of viral-related double-stranded RNAs in tobacco mosaic virus-infected plants, Virology 113: 417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zimmern, D., 1975, The 5’ end group of tobacco mosaic virus RNA is m7G5 ppp5’Gp, Nucleic Acids Res. 2: 1189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zimmern, D., 1977, The nucleotide sequence at the origin for assembly on tobacco mosaic virus RNA, Cell 11: 463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Palukaitis
    • 1
  • Milton Zaitlin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations