Tobacco Mild Green Mosaic Virus

  • Carl Wetter
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)


In this chapter, the designation tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) is used for an ensemble of serologically closely related viruses (Table I) containing among others the well-characterized U2 strain (Siegel and Wildman, 1954; Wetter, 1984a,b). TMGMV was detected in 1927 by McKinney (1929) in Nicotiana glauca plants on the Canary Islands and labelled mild dark green tobacco mosaic virus. It was regarded for a long time as a silent contaminant or a rare companion of type tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) but recent findings have indicated that TMGMV is of considerable economic importance. When the first groups of plant viruses were established, none of the strains of TMGMV were regarded as distinct viruses of the tobamovirus group (Brandes and Wetter, 1959; Harrison et al., 1971). The TMGMV virus was so named by McKinney to describe the mild symptoms induced in tobacco leaves in contrast to the much more pronounced yellow mosaic symptoms caused by common TMV. Mild virus strains from tobacco, closely related to TMGMV, were detected on several independent occasions in West Germany and in the United States (Wetter, 1984b). The biophysical, biochemical, and biological properties of the virus are sufficiently unique to justify it being considered a distinct species (member) of the tobamovirus group. Some of the properties of TMGMV described in this chapter represent unpublished data of the author.


Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Tobacco Mosaic Virus Canary Island Plant Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altschuh, D., Reinbolt, J., and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1981, Sequence and antigenic activity of the region 93–113 of the coat protein of strain U2 of tobacco mosaic virus, J. Gen. Virol. 52: 363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Type Culture Collection, 1981, Catalogue of Strains II, Rockville, Md.Google Scholar
  3. Atabekova, T. I., Taliansky, M. E., and Atabekov, J. G., 1975, Specificity of protein—RNA and protein—protein interaction upon assembly of TMV in vivo and in vitro, Virology 67: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bald, J. G., and Goodshild, D. J., 1960, Tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana glauca, Phytopathology 50: 497.Google Scholar
  5. Bald, J. G., Gumpf, D. J., and Heick, J., 1974, Transition from common tobacco mosaic virus to the Nicotiana glauca form, Virology 59: 467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ball, E. M., 1966, A technique for comparing the electrophoretic mobility rates of viruses or virus strains, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 114: 547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benda, G. T. A., 1949, Concerning: Mutual exclusion of strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 9: 712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boedtker, H., and Simmons, N. S., 1958, The preparation and characterization of essentially uniform tobacco mosaic virus particles, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80: 2550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brandes, J., and Wetter, C., 1959, Classification of elongated plant viruses on the basis of particle morphology, Virology 8: 99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen, M., Siegel, A., Zaitlin, M., Hudson, W. R., and Wildman, S. G., 1957, A study of tobacco mosaic strain predominance and an hypothesis for the origin of systemic virus infection, Phytopathology 47: 694.Google Scholar
  11. Conti, M., and Marte, M., 1983, Virus, virosi e micoplasmosi del peperone, Ital. Agric. 120: 132.Google Scholar
  12. Dodds, J. A., and Hamilton, R. I., 1976, Structural interactions between viruses as a consequence of mixed infections, Adv. Virus Res. 20: 33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dudman, W. F., 1965, Differentiation of strains of tobacco mosaic virus by immune diffusion in agar plates, Phytopathology 55: 635.Google Scholar
  14. Fulton, R. W., 1951, Superinfection by strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Phytopathology 41: 579.Google Scholar
  15. Ginoza, W., and Atkinson, D. E., 1955, Comparison of some physical and chemical properties of eight strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 1: 253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harrison, B. D., Finch, J. T, Gibbs, A. J., Hollings, M., Shepherd, R. J., Valenta, V., and Wetter, C., 1971, Sixteen groups of plant viruses, Virology 45: 356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Helms, K., 1965, Interference between two strains of tobacco mosaic virus in leaves of pinto bean, Virology 27: 346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hennig, B., and Wittmann, H. G., 1972, Tobacco mosaic virus: Mutants and strains, in: Principles and Techniques in Plant Virology ( C. J. Kado and H. O. Agrawal, eds.), pp. 546–672, Van Nostrand—Reinhold, Princeton, N.J.Google Scholar
  19. Johnson, J., 1947, Virus attenuation and the separation of strains by specific hosts, Phytopathology 37: 822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kassanis, B., 1963, Interactions of viruses in plants, Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 10: 219.Google Scholar
  21. Knight, C. A., Silva, D. M., Dahl, D., and Tsugita, A., 1962, Two distinctive strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 16: 236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Köhler, E., and Panjan, M., 1943, Das Paramosaikvirus der Tabakpflanze, Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 61: 175.Google Scholar
  23. Kreibig, U., and Wetter, C., 1980, Light diffraction of in vitro crystals of six tobacco mosaic viruses, Z. Naturforsch. 35c: 750.Google Scholar
  24. McKinney, H. H., 1929, Mosaic diseases in the Canary Islands, West Africa, and Gibraltar, J. Agric. Res. 39: 557.Google Scholar
  25. McKinney, H. H., 1935, Evidence of virus mutation in the common mosaic of tobacco, J. Agric. Res. 51: 951.Google Scholar
  26. McKinney, H. H., 1952, Two strains of tobacco mosaic virus one of which is seed-borne in an etch-immune pungent pepper, Plant Dis. Rep. 36: 184.Google Scholar
  27. Matthews, R. E. F., 1981, Plant Virology, 2nd ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Miller, P. M., and Thornberry, H. H., 1958, A new viral disease of tomato and pepper, Phytopathology 48: 665.Google Scholar
  29. Palukaitis, P., and Symons, R. H., 1980, Nucleotide sequence homology of thirteen tobamovirus RNAs as determined by hybridization analysis with complementary DNA, Virology 107: 354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Randles, J. W., Palukaitis, P., and Davies, C., 1981, Natural distribution, spread and variation, in the tobacco mosaic virus infecting Nicotiana glauca in Australia. Ann. appl. Biol. 98: 109.Google Scholar
  31. Rentschler, L., 1967, Aminosäuresequenzen and physikochemisches Verhalten des Hüll-proteins eines Wildstammes des Tabakmosaikvirus. I. Analyse der Primärstruktur (Pos. 62–134) des Hüllproteins von Wildstamm U2, Mol. Gen. Genet. 100: 84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shalla, T. A., 1968, Virus particles in chloroplasts of plants infected with the U5 strain of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 35: 194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shalla, T. A., and Petersen, L. J., 1978, Studies on the mechanism of viral cross protection, Phytopathology 68: 1681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shalla, T. A., Petersen, L. J., and Giunchedi, L., 1975, Partial characterization of virus-like particles in chloroplasts of plants infected with the U5 strain of TMV, Virology 66: 94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sherwood, J. L., and Fulton, R. W., 1982, The specific involvement of coat protein in tobacco mosaic virus cross protection, Virology 119: 150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Siegel, A., 1959, Mutual exclusion of strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 8: 470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Siegel, A., 1971, Pseudovirions of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 46: 50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Siegel, A., and Hudson, W., 1959, Equilibrium centrifugation of two strains of tobacco mosaic virus in density gradients, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 34: 254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Siegel, A., and Wildman, S. G., 1954, Some natural relationships among strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Phytopathology 44: 277.Google Scholar
  40. Siegel, A., and Wildman, S. G., 1956, The inactivation of the infectious centers of tobacco mosaic virus by ultraviolet light, Virology 2: 69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Siegel, A., and Zaitlin, M., 1964, Infection process in plant virus diseases, Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 2: 179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Siegel, A., Wildman, S. G., and Ginoza, W., 1956, Sensitivity to ultra-violet light of infectious tobacco mosaic virus nucleic acid, Nature (London) 178: 1117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Siegel, A., Ginoza, W., and Wildman, S G, 1957, The early events of infection with tobacco mosaic virus nucleic acid, Virology 3: 554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Skotnicki, A., Scotti, P. D., and Gibbs, A., 1976, On the nature of the difference in the densities of the particles of two tobamoviruses, Intervirology 7: 292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Skotnicki, A., Scotti, P. D., and Gibbs, A., 1977, Particles produced during a mixed infection by two tobamoviruses contain coat proteins of both viruses, Intervirology 8: 60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Solberg, R. A., and Bald, J. G., 1963, Distribution of a natural and an alien form of tobacco mosaic virus in the shoot apex of Nicotiana glauca Grah., Virology 21: 300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Taliansky, M. E., Atabekova, T. I., and Atabekov, J. G., 1977, The formation of phenotypically mixed particles upon mixed assembly of some tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) strains, Virology 76: 701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tsugita, A., 1962, The proteins of mutants of TMV: Classification of spontaneous and chemically evoked strains, J. Mol. Biol. 5: 293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Van De Walle, M. J., and Siegel, A., 1976, A study of nucleotide sequence homology between strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 73: 413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Van De Walle, M. J., and Siegel, A., 1982, Relationships between strains of tobacco mosaic virus and other selected plant viruses, Phytopathology 72: 390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1967, Serological studies on naturally occurring strains and chemically induced mutants of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 31: 467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1975, Antigenic relationships between strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 64: 415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1982, Serology and Immunochemistry of Plant Viruses, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., and Burckard, J., 1980, Detection of a wide spectrum of tobacco mosaic virus strains by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), Virology 106: 327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wetter, C., 1980, Occurrence of para-tobacco mosaic virus in field tobacco in South-West Germany, Z. Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenschutz. 87: 150.Google Scholar
  56. Wetter, C., 1984a, Serological identification of four tobamoviruses infecting pepper, Plant Dis. 68: 597.Google Scholar
  57. Wetter, C., 1984b, Antigenic relationships between isolates of mild dark-green tobacco mosaic virus and the problem of host-induced mutation, Phytopathology 74: 1308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wetter, C., and Bernard, M., 1977, Identifizierung, Reinigung and serologischer Nachweis von Tabakmosaikvirus and Para-Tabakmosaikvirus aus Zigaretten, Phytopathol. Z. 90: 257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wetter, C., Conti, M., Altschuh, D., Tabillion, R., and Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1984, Pepper mild mottle virus, a tobamovirus infecting pepper cultivars in Sicily, Phytopathology 74: 405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wittmann, H. G., 1965, Die primäre Proteinstruktur von Stämmen des Tabakmosaikvirus. Teil IV. Aminosäuresequenzen (Pos. 1–61 and 135–158) des Proteins des Tabakmosaikvirus-Stammes U2, Z. Naturforsch. 20b: 1213.Google Scholar
  61. Wu, J. H., and Rappaport, I., 1961, An analysis of the interference between two strains of tobacco mosaic virus on Phaseolus vulgaris L., Virology 14: 259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zaitlin, M., and Israel, H. W., 1975, Tobacco mosaic virus (type strain), CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 151.Google Scholar
  63. Zettler, F. W., and Nagel, J., 1983, Infection of cultivated gesneriads by two strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Plant Dis. 67: 1123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl Wetter
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of SaarlandSaarbrückenWest Germany

Personalised recommendations