• James G. HollandsworthJr.
Part of the The Plenum Series in Behavioral Psychophysiology book series (SSBP)


Like anxiety, depression is defined in terms of its symptoms rather than its cause. Depression is “a label for a feeling or affective state of dysphoria” (Craighead, 1981, p. 76). Symptoms that occur in at least 75% of individuals diagnosed as depressed include feelings of inadequacy and helplessness, indecisiveness, crying spells, loss of interest and enjoyment, fatigability, sleep disturbance, pessimism, dejected mood, and self-devaluation (Beck, 1973). Agreement, however, as to what constitutes a depressive state is often difficult to achieve in that these symptoms are neither unique to depression nor universally ascribed to that condition (Glazer, Clarkin, & Hunt, 1981; Harrow, Colbert, Detre, & Bakeman, 1966; Levitt, Lubin, & Brooks, 1983).


Antidepressant Medication Major Depressive Episode Bipolar Depression Depressive State Adjustment Disorder 


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Recommended Readings

  1. Clarkin, J. F., & Glazer, H. I. (Eds.). (1981). Depression: Behavioral and directive intervention strategies. New York: Garland STPM Press.Google Scholar
  2. Rehm, L. P. (Ed.). (1981). Behavior therapy for depression: Present status and future directions. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • James G. HollandsworthJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Southern MississippiHattiesburgUSA

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