Advertisement

Pain Transmission

  • Tony L. Yaksh

Abstract

Unconditioned stimuli applied to peripheral tissues including skin, viscera, and muscle at intensities sufficient to distort or damage tissue will evoke verbal reports of pain in humans and coordinated efforts to escape (i. e., pain behavior) in animals. The classic description by Beecher1 of wounded men in battle not reporting pain in spite of extensive tissue damage is a commonly cited example indicating, however, that there is not an invariant relationship between the physical stimulus and the behavioral sequelae. As is discussed below, the ros-trad transmission of afferent information at every synaptic link is subject to a considerable and variable degree of inhibition and modulation by intrinsic neural systems. In the following discussion, I briefly review (1) the complex substrates whereby neural activity generated by high-intensity mechanical, thermal, or chemical stimuli gain access to higher brain centers and (2) systems that regulate transmission through these systems.

Keywords

Dorsal Horn Reticular Formation Primary Afferents Pain Transmission Pain Event 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Beecher, H. K., 1957, Pharmacol Rev. 9:59–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gasser, H. S., 1950, J. Gen. Physiol. 33:651–690.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lloyd, D. P. D., 1943, J. Neurophysiol. 6:293–315.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ochoa, J., 1976, The Peripheral Nerve, Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 106–158.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andres, K. H., 1961, Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 55:1–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 5a.
    Lieberman, A. R., 1976, The Peripherase Nerve, Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 188–278.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    Csillik, B., and Knyihar, E., 1978, Progress in Neurobiology, Volume 10, Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 203–230.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Knyihar, E., and Csillik, B., 1976, Exp. Brain Res. 26:73–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    Kalina, M., and Bubis, J. J., 1976, Experientia 25:386–387.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    Kalina, M., and Wolman, M., 1970, Histochemie 22:100–108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    Tervo, T., and Palkama, A., 1978, Acta Anat. 102:164–175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    Droz, B., 1973, Brain Res. 62:383–394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    Bisby, M. A., 1976, Gen. Pharmacol. 7:387–393.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    Cauna, N., 1969, J. Comp. Neurol. 136:81–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    Boivie, J., and Perl, E. R., 1975, MTP International Review of Science, Physiology Series One, Volume 3 (C. C. Hung, ed.), University Press, Baltimore, pp. 303–411.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    Chouchkov, C. N., 1972, Z. Mikrosc. Anat. Forsch. 86:273–288.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Cauna, N., 1966, Touch, Heat and Pain: CIBA Foundation Symposium (A. V. de Reuck and J. Knight, eds.), Churchill, London, pp. 117–127.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Cranefield, P. E., 1979, The Way In and The Way Out. Francois Magendie, Charles Bell and the Roots of the Spinal Nerves, Futura Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    Coggeshall, R. E., Coulter, J. D., and Willis, W. D., Jr., 1974, J. Comp. Neurol. 153:39–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Yamamoto, T., Takahashi, K., Satomi, H., and Ise, H., 1977, Brain Res. 126:350–354.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Burgess, P. R., and Perl, E. R., 1973, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Volume II (A. Iggo, ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 29–78.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Georgopoulos, A. P., 1976, J. Neurophysiol. 39:71–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Bessou, P., and Perl, E. R., 1969, J. Neurophysiol. 32:1025–1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Beck, P. W., Handwerker, H. O., and Zimmerman, M., 1974, Brain Res. 67:373–386.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Dubner, R., and Beitel, R. E., 1976, Adv. Pain Res. Ther. 1:155–160.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    Beitel, R. E., and Dubner, R., 1976, J. Neurophysiol. 39:1160–1175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Kumazawa, T., and Perl, E. R., 1977, J. Neurophysiol. 40:1325–1338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Zotterman, Y., 1939, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 95:1–28.Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    Vyklicky, L., 1979, Adv. Pain Res. Ther. 3:727–746.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Van Hees, J., and Gybels, J. M., 1972, Brain Res. 48:397–400.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Torebjork, H. E., and Hallin, R. G., 1974, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 37:653–664.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Torebjork, H. E., and Hallin, R. G., 1974, Brain Res. 67:387–403.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Torebjork, H. E., and Hallin, R. G., 1976, Sensory Function of the Skin in Primates (Y. Zotterman, ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 475–487.Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    LaMotte, R. H., and Campbell, J. N., 1978, J. Neurophysiol. 41:509–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    Torebjork, H. E., and Hallin, R. G., 1973, Exp. Brain Res. 16:321–332.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    Vallbo, A. D., Hagbarth, K.-E., Torebjork, H. E., and Wallen, B. G., 1979, Physiol. Rev. 59:917–957.Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    Konietzky, F., Perl, E. R., Trevino, D., Light, A., and Hensel, H., 1981, Exp. Brain Res. 42:219–222.Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    Willer, J. C., Boureau, F., and Albe-Fessard, D., 1978, Brain Res. 152:358–364.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Willer, J. C., Boureau, F., and Albe-Fessard, D., 1980, Brain Res. 201:465–470.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    Iggo, A., 1961, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 155:52P–53P.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Kumazawa, T., and Mizumura, K., 1977, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 273:179–194.Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    Meyer, R. A., and Campbell, J. W., 1981, Brain Res. 224:149–152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Lele, P. P., and Weddell, G., 1956, Brain 79:119–154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Loewenstein, W. R., 1971, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Volume 1, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 267–290.Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    Catton, W. T., 1970, Physiol. Rev. 50:297–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Bannister, L. H., 1976, The Peripheral Nerve (D. N. Landon, ed.), Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 396–463.Google Scholar
  47. 46.
    Lewis, T., 1942, Pain, Macmillian, New York.Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Perl, E. R., 1976, Adv. Pain Res. Ther. 1:17–28.Google Scholar
  49. 48.
    Torebjork, H. E., and Hallin, R. G., 1979, Adv. Pain Res. Ther. 3:121–131.Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    Fitzgerald, M., and Lynn, B., 1977, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 265:549–563.Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    Dubner, R., Sumino, R., and Wood, W. I., 1975, J. Neurophysiol. 38:1373–1389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Essman, W. B., 1978, Availability, Localization and Disposition, Volume 1. Serotonin in Health and Disease (W. B. Essman, ed.), Spectrum Publications, New York, pp. 15–178.Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    Green, J. P., Johnson, C. L., and Weinstein, H., 1978, Psychopharmacology: A Generation of Progress (M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K. F. Killam, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 319–332.Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Kaliner, M., and Austen, K. F., 1975, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. 15:177–189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Uvnas, B., 1978, Handbuch der Experimentallelen Pharmacologie, Volume 18 (Part 2) (M. Rocha e Silva, ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 75–92.Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    Sullivan, T. J., and Parker, C. W., 1979, J. Immunol. 122:431–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Morrison, D. C., and Henson, P. M., 1978, Immediate Hypersensitivity: Modem Concepts and Developments (M. K. Bach, ed.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 431–502.Google Scholar
  58. 57.
    Harris, R. H., and Ramwell, P. W., 1979, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 41:653–668.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Moncada, S., and Vane, J. R., 1979, Pharmacol. Rev. 30:293–331.Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    McGiff, J. C., 1981, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 21:479–509.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Hamberg, M., and Jonsson, C.-E., 1973, Acta Physiol. Scand. 87:240–245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Moncada, S., and Vane, J. R., 1979, Adv. Intern. Med. 24:1–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Chan, J. V. C., Burrowes, C. E., and Movat, H. Z., 1978, Agents Actions 8:65–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Winkelmann, R. K., 1968, The Skin Senses (D. R. Kenshalo, ed.), Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pp. 499–511.Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Hnik, P., Holas, M., Krekvle, I., Křiž, N., Mejsnar, J., Smiesko, V., Ujec, E., and Vyskčil, F., 1976, Pfluegers Arch. 362:85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Hokfelt, T., Johansson, O., Ljungdahl, A., Lundberg, J., and Schultzberg, M., 1980, Nature 284:515–521.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Olgart, L., Gazelius, B., Brodin, E., and Nilsson, G., 1977, Acta Physiol. Scand. 101:510–512.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Schmid, R. F., 1971, Ergeb. Physiol. 63:21–101.Google Scholar
  69. 68.
    Gamse, R., Holzer, P., and Lembeck, F., Br. J. Pharmacol. 68:207-213.Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Hagermark, O., Hokfelt, T., and Pernow, B., 1978, J. Invest. Dermatol. 71:233–235.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Juan, H., and Lembeck, F., 1974, Naunyn Schmiedbergs Arch. Pharmacol. 283:151–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Fock, S., and Mense, S., 1976, Brain Res. 105:459–469.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Armstrong, D., Dry, R., Keele, C. A., and Markham, J. W., 1953, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 120:326–351.Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    Elliot, D. E., Horton, E. W., and Lewis, G. M., 1960, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 153:473–480.Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    Keele, C. A., and Armstrong, D., 1964, Monographs of the Physiological Society, Volume 12 (H. Barcroft, H. Davson, and W. D. M. Paton, eds.), Edward Arnold, London, pp. 1–374.Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    Guzman, F., Braun, C., and Lim, R. K. S., 1962, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 136:353–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Handwerker, H. O., 1976, Adv. Pain Res. Ther. 1:41–45.Google Scholar
  78. 77.
    Solomon, L. M., Juhlin, L., and Kirschbaum, M. D., 1968, J. Invest. Dermatol. 51:280–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Tyers, M. B., and Haywood, H., 1979, Agents Action 6:65–78.Google Scholar
  80. 79.
    Chahl, L. A., and Iggo, A., 1977, Br. J. Pharmacol. 59:343–374.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Staszewska-Barczak, J., Ferreira, S. H., and Vane, J. R., 1976, Cardiovasc. Res. 10:314–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Juan, H., and Lembeck, F., 1976, Agents Actions 6:642–645.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Fitzgerald, M., and Lynn, B., 1977, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 265:549–563.Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    Rexed, B., 1954, J. Comp. Neurol. 100:297–380.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Cajal, S. Ramon y, 1909, Histologie du Systeme Nerveux de l’ Hommes et des Vertebres, 1952 reprint, Instituto Ramon y Cajal, Madrid.Google Scholar
  86. 85.
    Kerr, F. W. L., 1975, Pain 1:325–356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Light, A. R., and Perl, E. R., 1979, J. Comp. Neurol. 186:117–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Sterling, P., and Kuypers, H. G. J. M., 1967, Brain Res. 4:1–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Wall, P. D., and Yaksh, T. L., 1978, Exp. Neurol. 60:570–583.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Craig, A. D., and Burton, H., 1981, J. Neurophysiol. 45:443–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Kevetter, G. A., Haber, L. H., Vezierski, R. P., Chung, J. M., Martin, R. F., and Willis, W. D., 1982, J. Comp. Neurol. 207:61–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Coggeshall, R. E., Applebaum, M. L., Fazen, M., Stubbs, T. B., and Sykes, M. T., 1975, Brain 98:157–166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 92.
    Onofrio, B. M., and Campa, H. K., 1972, J. Neurosurg. 36:751–755.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Trevino, D. L., Maunz, R. A., Bryan, R. N., and Willis, W. D., 1972, Exp. Neurol. 34:64–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Price, D. D., and Mayer, D. J., 1975, Pain 1:59–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Willis, W. D., Kenshalo, D. R., Jr., and Leonard, R. B., 1979, J. Comp. Neurol. 188:543–574.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Kumazawa, T., and Perl, E. R., 1978, J. Comp. Neurol. 177:417–434.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Cervero, F., Iggo, A., and Ogawa, H., 1976, Pain 2:5–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Kuru, M., 1949, Sensory Paths in the Spinal Cord and Brain Stem of Man, Sogensya, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  100. 99.
    Cervero, F., and Iggo, A., 1980, Brain 103:717–772.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Gobel, S., 1978, J. Comp. Neurol. 180:375–393.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Gobel, S., 1978, J. Comp. Neurol. 180:395–414.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Ralston, H. J., 1979, J. Comp. Neurol. 184:619–642.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Light, A. R., and Perl, E. R., 1979, J. Comp. Neurol. 186:117–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    LaMotte, C., 1977, J. Comp. Neurol. 172:529–562.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Willis, W. D., Leonard, R. B., and Kenshalo, D. R., Jr., 1978, Science 202:986–988.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Fukushima, T., and Kerr, F. W. L., 1979, J. Comp. Neurol. 183:169–184.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Kumazawa, T., and Perl, E. R., 1978, J. Comp. Neurol. 177:417–434.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Cervero, F., Molony, V., and Iggo, A., 1977, Brain Res. 136:545–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Wall, P. D., Merrill, E. G., and Yaksh, T. L., 1979, Brain Res. 160:245–261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Light, A. R., Trevino, D. L., and Perl, E. R., 1979, J. Comp. Neurol. 186:151–172.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Cervero, F., Molony, V., and Iggo, A., 1979, Brain Res. 175:351–355.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Giesler, G. J., Cannon, J. T., Urca, J. C., and Liebeskind, J. C., 1978, Science 202:984–986.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Wall, P. D., 1960, J. Neurophysiol. 23:197–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Wall, P. D., 1967, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 188:403–423.Google Scholar
  116. 115.
    Price, D. D., and Dubner, R., 1977, Pain 3:307–338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    Foreman, R. D., Ohata, C. A., and Gerhart, K. D., 1978, Neural Mechanisms in Cardiac Arrhythmias (P. J. Schwartz, A. M. Brown, A. Malliani, and A. Zanchetti, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 191–207.Google Scholar
  118. 117.
    Mendell, L. M., 1966, Exp. Neurol. 16:316–332.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 118.
    Brown, P. B., Fuchs, J. L., and Tapper, D. N., 1975, J. Neurophysiol. 38:19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Price, D. D., Dubner, R., and Hu, J. W., 1976, J. Neurophysiol. 39:936–953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 120.
    Price, D. D., and Mayer, D. J., 1975, Pain 1:59–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 121.
    DeJong, R. H., Robles, R., and Heavner, J. E., 1970, Anesthesiology 32:440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 122.
    Heavner, J. E., 1975, Pain 1:239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 123.
    Spiller, W. G., and Martin, E., 1912, J.A.M.A. 58:1489–1490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 124.
    White, J. C., and Sweet, W. H., 1955, Pain, Its Mechanisms and Neurosurgical Control, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  126. 125.
    White, J. C., and Sweet, W. H., 1969, Pain and the Neurosurgeon, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  127. 126.
    Hyndman, O. R., and Van Epps, C., 1939, Arch. Surg. 38:1036–1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 127.
    Bowsher, D., 1976, Pain 2:361–378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 128.
    Cook, A. W., and Browder, E., 1965, Arch. Neurol. 12:72–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 129.
    Vierck, C. J., Jr., Hamilton, D. M., and Thornby, J. I., 1971, Exp. Brain Res. 13:140–158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 130.
    Nashold, B. S., Jr., and Friedman, N., 1972, J. Neurosurg. 36:590–597.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    Morin, F., 1955, Am. J. Physiol. 183:245–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 132.
    Nijensohn, D. E., and Kerr, F. W. L., 1975, J. Comp. Neurol. 161:459–470.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 133.
    Truex, R. C., Taylor, M. J., Smythe, M. Q., and Gildenberg, P. L., 1970, J. Comp. Neurol. 139:93–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Brown, A. G., and Franz, D. N., 1969, Exp. Brain Res. 7:231–249.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 135.
    Cervero, F., Iggo, A., and Molony, V., 1977, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 267:537–538.Google Scholar
  137. 136.
    Kniffki, K. D., Mense, S., and Schmidt, R. F., 1977, Proc. Int. U. Physiol. Sci. 13:393.Google Scholar
  138. 137.
    Basbaum, A. I., 1973, Exp. Neurol. 40:699–716.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 138.
    Nashold, B., Urban, B., and Zorub, D. S., 1976, Adv. Pain Res. Ther. 1:959–963.Google Scholar
  140. 139.
    Ranson, S. W., 1913, J. Comp. Neurol. 23:259–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 140.
    Ranson, S. W., 1914, J. Comp. Neurol. 24:531–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 141.
    Szentagothai, J., 1964, J. Comp. Neurol. 122:219–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 142.
    Kennard, M. A., 1954, J. Comp. Neurol. 100:511–524.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 143.
    Bowsher, D., 1957, Brain 80:606–622.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    Mehler, W. R., Feferman, M. E., and Nauta, W. J. H., 1960, Brain 83:718–750.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 145.
    Kerr, F. W. L., and Lippman, H. H., 1974, Adv. Neurol. 4:147–156.Google Scholar
  147. 146.
    Kerr, F. W. L., and Fukushima, T. F., 1980, Pain (J. J. Bonica, ed.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 47–61.Google Scholar
  148. 147.
    Bowsher, D., 1975, Brain Res. 95:211–220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 148.
    Bowsher, D., 1976, Pain 2:361–378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 149.
    Mancia, M., Marginelli, M., Mariotti, M., Spreafico, R., and Broggi, G., 1974, Brain Res. 69:297–314.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 150.
    Casey, K. L., 1969, Exp. Neurol. 25:35–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 151.
    Goldman, P. L., Collins, W. F., Taub, A., and Fitzmartin, J., 1972, Exp. Neurol. 37:597–606.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 152.
    Guilbaud, G., Besson, J. M., Oliveras, J. L., and Wyon-Maillard, M. C., 1973, Brain Res. 63:131–140.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 153.
    Anderson, S. D., Basbaum, A. I., and Fields, H. L., 1977, Brain Res. 123:363–368.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 154.
    Cedarbaum, J. M., and Aghajanian, G. K., 1978, Life Sci. 23:1383–1392.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 155.
    Casey, K. L., 1971, Int. J. Neurosci. 2:15–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 156.
    Casey, K. L., and Keene, J. J., 1973, Brain Unit Activity during Behavior (M. I. Phillips, ed.), Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pp. 115–129.Google Scholar
  158. 157.
    Keene, J. J., and Casey, K. L., 1973, Physiol. Behav. 10:283–287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 158.
    Halpern, B. P., and Halverson, J. D., 1974, Behav. Biol. 11:215–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 159.
    Pearl, G. S., and Anderson, K. V., 1976, Adv. Pain Res. Ther. 1:259–265.Google Scholar
  161. 160.
    Chi, C. C., 1970, J. Comp. Neurol. 139:259–272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 161.
    Barnes, K. L., 1976, Exp. Neurol. 50:180–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 162.
    Young, D. W., and Gottschaldt, R. M., 1976, Exp. Neurol. 51:628–636.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 163.
    Eickhoff, R., Handwerker, H. O., McQueen, D. S., and Schick, E., 1978, Pain 5:99–113.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 164.
    Spiegel, E. A., Keltzkin, M., and Szekely, E. G., 1954, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 13:212–220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 165.
    Skultety, F. M., 1963, Arch. Neurol. 8:608–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 166.
    Nashold, B. S., Jr., Wilson, W. P., and Slaughter, D., 1969, J. Neurosurg. 30:14–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 167.
    Liebman, J. M., Mayer, D. J., and Liebeskind, J. C., 1973, Behav. Biol. 9:299–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 168.
    Deakin, J. F. W., and Dostrovsky, J. O., 1978, Br. J. Pharmacol. 63:159–165.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 169.
    Burton, H., and Jones, E. G., 1976, J. Comp. Neurol. 168:249–302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 170.
    Kerr, F. W. L., 1975, J. Comp. Neurol. 159:335–356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 171.
    Boivie, J., 1971, Brain Res. 28:459–490.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 172.
    Boivie, J., 1979, J. Comp. Neurol. 186:343–370.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 173.
    Jones, E. G., and Powell, T. P. S., 1971, J. Comp. Neurol. 143:185–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 174.
    Poggio, G. F., and Mountcastle, V. B., 1960, Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 106:266–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 175.
    Curry, M. J., 1972, Brain Res. 44:439–462.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 176.
    Berkley, K. J. 1973, J. Neurophysiol. 36:940–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 177.
    Schwartzman, R. J., 1970, Arch. Neurol. 23:419–429.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 178.
    Hassler, R., 1960, Acta Neurochir. 8:353–423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 179.
    Jones, E. G., and Powell, T. P. S., 1969, Brain Res. 13:298–318.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 180.
    Sugita, K., Mutsuga, N., Takaoka, Y., and Doi, T., 1972, Confin. Neurol. 34:265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 181.
    Friedman, D. P., and Jones, E. G., 1980, Brain Res. 191:249–252.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 182.
    Poggio, G. F., and Mountcastle, V. B., 1963, J. Neurophysiol. 26:775–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 183.
    Burton, H., Forbes, D. J., and Benjamin, R. M., 1970, Brain Res. 24:179–190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 184.
    Harris, F. A., 1980, Exp. Neurol. 68:27–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 185.
    Boivie, J., 1978, J. Comp. Neurol. 178:17–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 186.
    Nyquist, J. K., 1975, Exp. Neurol. 48:123–135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 187.
    Willis, W. D., Kenshalo, D. R., Jr., and Leonard, R. B., 1979, J. Comp. Neurol. 188:543–574.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 188.
    Glassman, R. D., Forgus, M. W., Goodman, J. E., and Glassman, H. N., 1975, Exp. Neurol. 48:460–492.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 189.
    Talairach, J., Hecaen, M., David, M., Monnier, M., and de Ajurioguerra, J., 1949, Rev. Neurol. 81:4–24.Google Scholar
  191. 190.
    Halliday, A. M., and Logue, V., 1972, Neurophysiology Studied in Man (G. G. Somjen, ed.), Excerpta Media, Amsterdam, pp. 221–230.Google Scholar
  192. 191.
    Bowsher, D., Mallart, A., Petit, D., and Albe-Fessard, D., 1968, J. Neurophysiol. 31:288–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 192.
    Pearl, G. S., and Anderson, K. V., 1980, Brain Res. Bull. 5:203–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 193.
    Mancia, M., Broggi, G., and Margnelli, M., 1971, Brain Res. 25:638–641.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 194.
    Jones, E. G., and Leavitt, R. Y., 1974, J. Comp. Neurol. 154:349–378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 195.
    Emmers, R., 1981, Pain: A Spike Coded Message in Brain, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  197. 196.
    Dong, W. K., Ryu, H., and Wagman, I. H., 1978, J. Neurophysiol. 41:1592–1613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 197.
    Ishijima, B., Yoshimasu, N., Fukushima, T., Hori, T., Sekino, H., and Sano, K., 1975, Confin. Neurol. 37:99–106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 198.
    Kaelber, W. W., Mitchell, C. L., Yarmat, A. J., Afifi, A. K., and Lorens, S. A., 1975, Exp. Neurol. 46:282–290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 199.
    Marburg, D. J., 1973, Int. J. Neurosci. 5:153–158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 200.
    Delacour, J., and Borst, A., 1972, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 80:458–468.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 201.
    Yaksh, T. L., Yeung, J. C., and Rudy, T. A., 1977, Neuropharmacology 16:107–114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 202.
    Sugita, K., Mutsuga, N., Takaoka, Y., and Doi, T., 1972, Confin. Neurol. 34:265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 203.
    Whitsel, B. L., Petrucelli, L. M., and Werner, G., 1969, J. Neurophysiol. 32:170–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 204.
    Jones, E. G., and Powell, T. P. S., 1970, Brain 93:37–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 205.
    Saporta, S., and Kruger, L., 1979, Brain Res. 178:275–295.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 206.
    Burton, H., and Jones, E. G., 1976, J. Comp. Neurol. 168:249–302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 207.
    Carreras, M., and Andersson, S. A., 1963, J. Neurophysiol. 26:100–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 208.
    Whitsel, B. L., Petrucelli, L. M., and Werner, G., 1969, J. Neurophysiol. 32:170–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 209.
    Kenshalo, D. R., Giesler, G. J., Leonard, R. B., and Willis, W. D., 1979, J. Neurophysiol. 43:1594–1614.Google Scholar
  211. 210.
    Elithorn, A., Piercy, M., and Crosskey, M. A., 1955, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 18:34–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 211.
    Fields, H. L., and Basbaum, A. I., 1978, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 40:217–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 212.
    Yaksh, T. L., and Hammond, D. L., 1982, Brain Stem Control of Spinal Mechanisms (B. Sjolund and A. Bjorklund, eds.), Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 470–472.Google Scholar
  214. 213.
    Yaksh, T. L., Hammond, D. L., and Tyce, G. M., 1981, Fed. Proc. 40:2786–2794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 214.
    Game, C. J. A., and Lodge, D., 1975, Exp. Brain Res. 23:75–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 215.
    Hillman, P., and Vall, P. D., 1969, Exp. Brain Res. 9:284–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 216.
    Shealy, C. N., Mortimer, J. T., and Hagfors, N. R., 1970, J. Neurosurg. 32:560–564.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 217.
    Fox, J. L., 1974, Surg. Neurol. 2:59–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 218.
    Melzack, R., and Wall, P. D., 1965, Science 150:971–980.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 219.
    Hokfelt, T., Ljungdahl, A., Elde, R., Nilsson, G., and Terenius, L., 1977, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 74:3081–3085.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 220.
    Yaksh, T. L., 1981, Pain 11:293–346.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 221.
    Engberg, I., Lundberg, A., and Ryall, R. W., 1968, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 194:201–223.Google Scholar
  223. 222.
    Engberg, I., Lundberg, A., and Ryall, R. W., 1968, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 194:225–236.Google Scholar
  224. 223.
    Willis, W. D., Haber, L. H., and Martin, R. F., 1977, J. Neurophysiol. 40:968–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 224.
    Fields, H. L., and Anderson, S. D., 1978, Pain 5:333–349.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 225.
    Lovick, T. A., and Wolstencroft, J. H., 1979, Pain 7:135–145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 226.
    Headley, P. M., Duggan, A. W., and Griersmith, B. T., 1978, Brain Res. 145:185–189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 227.
    Morrow, T. J., and Casey, K. L., 1976, Adv. Pain Res. Ther. 1:503–510.Google Scholar
  229. 228.
    Curry, M. J., 1972, Brain Res. 44:439–462.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 229.
    Bowsher, D., 1966, The Thalamus (D. P. Purpura and M. D. Yahr, eds.), Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 99–108.Google Scholar
  231. 230.
    Kuromi, H., Satoh, M., and Takagi, H., 1973, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 24:317–320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 231.
    Lineberry, C., and Vierck, C., 1975, Brain Res. 98:110–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 232.
    Tyce, G. M., and Yaksh, T. L., 1981, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 314:513–529.Google Scholar
  234. 233.
    Yaksh, T. L., and Elde, R. P., 1981, J. Neurophysiol. 46:1056–1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 234.
    Coulter, J. D., Foreman, R. D., Beall, J. E., and Willis, W. D., 1976, Adv. Pain Res. Ther. 1:271–277.Google Scholar
  236. 235.
    Haber, L. H., Moore, B. D., and Willis, W. D., 1982, J. Comp. Neurol. 207:75–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 236.
    Craig, A. D., and Burton, H., 1981, J. Neurophysiol. 45:443–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 237.
    Vierck, C. J., and Luck, M. M., 1979, Brain 102:233–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tony L. Yaksh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgical ResearchMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations