Advertisement

Lymphocyte Stimulation by Nonspecific Mitogens

  • Bilha Schechter

Abstract

Studies on the mitogenic activation of lymphocytes began in 1960 with the discovery by Nowell that a lectin extracted from the plant Phaseolus vulgaris (phytohemagglutinin, or PHA) transformed small resting lymphocytes into proliferating lymphoblasts (1). Since then, many other lectins (2), as well as agents other than lectins, have been found to stimulate lymphocytes non-specifically. The binding of stimulating agents, i.e., mitogens to the surface of lymphoid cells induces a sequence of surface and metabolic events which culminate in DNA synthesis and mitosis. It is generally accepted that the gross morphological and biological changes following mitogenic stimulation are similar to those which follow antigen-induced immune reactions. However, mitogenic stimulation “by-passes” the requirement for specific recognition that characterizes immunological activation. Mitogens were, therefore, found to be useful in studies on the mechanism of lymphocyte activation and in the evaluation of the biological and immune competence of lymphocytes. Assays for mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation provide a very useful means of assessing immunological competence in various types of immunodeficiency states, both in experimental and in clinical work (3, 4).

Keywords

Lymphocyte Activation Lima Bean Lymphocyte Stimulation Mitogenic Stimulation Agaricus Bisporus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Nowell, P.C. (1960) Cancer Res. 20: 462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lis, H., and Sharon, N. (1977) in “The Antigens,” (M. Sela, ed.), Vol. 4, p. 429.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Oppenheim, J.J., and Schechter, B. (1976) in “Manual of Clinical Immunology” (N.R. Rose, ed.), Washington: American Soc. for Microbiology, p. 81.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schechter, B., Handzel, Z.T., Altman, Y., Nir, E., and Levin, S. (1976) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 27: 478.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bloom, B.R. (1971) Adv. Immunol. 13: 102.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Granger, G.A. (1972) Ser. Haematol. 5(4): 8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Granger, G.A., Daynes, R.A., Runge, P.E., Prieur, A.M., and Jeffes, E.W.B. (1975) in Contemp. Top. Molec. Immunol. 3:205.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Andersson, J., and Melchers, F. (1973) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 70: 416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Melchers, F., and Andersson, J. (1973) Transplant. Rev. 14: 76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blease, R.M., Muchmore, A.V., and Nelson, D.L. (1976) in “Mitogens in Immunobiology” (J.J. Oppenheim and D.L. Rosenstreich, eds.), p. 443.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lis, H., Sela, B.A., Sachs, L., and Sharon, N. (1970) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 211: 582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Novogrodsky, A., and Katchalsky, E. (1973) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 70: 2515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Novogrodsky, A., Lotan, R., Ravid, A., and Sharon, N. (1975) J. Immunol. 115: 1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Novogrodsky, A. (1976) in “Mitogens in Immunobiology” (J.J. Oppenheim and D.L. Rosentriech, eds.), p. 43.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Andersson, J., Sjoberg, O., and Moller, G. (1972) Transpl. Rev. 11: 131.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Greaves, M.F., Bauminger, S., and Janossy, G. (1972) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 10: 537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stobo, J.D., Rosenthal, A.S., and Paul, W.E. (1972) J. Immunol.. 108: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Boldt, D.H., MacDermott, R.P., and Jordan, E.P. (1975) J. Immunol. 114: 1532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krug, U., Holtenberg, M.D., and Cuatrecasas, P. (1973) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 52: 305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Toyoshima, S., and Osawa, T. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250: 1657.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Presant, C.A., and Kornfeld, S. (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247: 6937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weber, T. (1973) Experientia 29: 863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Novogrodsky, A., Biniaminov, M., Ramot, B., and Katchalsky, E. (1972) Blood 40: 311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kornfeld, S., and Siemers, C. (1974) J. Biol. Chem. 249: 1295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stein, M.D., Sage, H.J., and Leon, M.A. (1972) Arch. Biophys. Biochem. 150: 412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Betel, I., and Van den Berg, K.J. (1972) Eur. J. Biochem. 30: 571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Inbar, M., Ben-Bassat, H., and Sachs, L. (1973) Int. J. Cancer 12: 93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Allan, D., and Crumpton, M.J. (1973) Exp. Cell Res. 78: 271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Scatchard, G. (1949) Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 51: 660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Prujansky, A., Ravid, A., and Sharon, N. (1978) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 508: 137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Loontiens, F.G., Clegg, R.M., Van Landschoot, A., and Jovin, T.M. (1977) Eur. J. Biochem. 78: 465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Loontiens, F.G., Clegg, R.M., and Jovin, T.M. (1977) Biochemistry 16: 159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Barnett, R.E., Scott, R.E., Furcht, L.T., and Kersey, J.H. (1974) Nature 249: 464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schechter, B., Lis, H., Lotan, R., Novogrodsky, A., and Sharon, N. (1976) Eur. J. Immunol. 6: 145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ruddon, R.W., Weisenthal, L.M., Lundeen, D.E., Bessler, W., and Goldstein, I.J. (1974) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 71: 1848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Prujansky, A., Ravid, A., Lis, H., and Sharon, N. (1978) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, in press.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ravid, A., Novogrodsky, A., and Wilchek, M. (1978) Eur. J. Immunol. 8: 289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Greaves, M.F., and Bauminger, S. (1972) Nature New Biol. 235: 67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gunther, G.R., Wang, J.L., Yahara, I., Cunningham, B.A., and Edelman, G.M. (1973) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci US 70: 1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sela, B.A., Wang, J.L., and Edelman, G.M. (1975) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 72: 1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Beppu, N., Terao, T., and Osawa, T. (1975) J. Biochem. 79: 1113.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fraser, A.R., Heraperly, T.T., Wang, J.L., and Edelman, G.M. (1976) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 73: 790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ellner, J.J., Lipski, P.E., and Rosenthal, A.S.(1976) J. Immunol. 116: 876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lipski, P.E., Ellner, J.J., and Rosenthal, A.S. (1976) J. Immunol. 116: 868.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rosenstreich, D.L., and Wilton, J.M. (1975) in “Immune Recognition” (A.S. Rosenthal, ed.), p. 113.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rosenstreich, D.L., Farrar, J.J., and Dougherty, S. (1976) J. Immunol. 116: 131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Frye, L.D., and Edidin, M. (1970) J. Cell. Sci. 7: 319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Taylor, R.B., Duffus, P.H., Raff, M.C., and de Petris, S. (1971) Nature New Biol. 233: 225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sharon, N., and Lis, H. (1975) Methods in Membr. Biol. 3: 143.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nicolson, G.L. (1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 457: 57; 458: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ahmann, G.B., and Sage, H.J. (1974) Cell. Immunol. 10: 183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Betel, I., and Van den Berg, K.J. (1972) Eur. J. Biochem. 30:571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ono, M., Maruta, H., and Mizuno, D. (1973) J. Biochem. 73:235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Greaves, M.F., and Janossy, G. (1972) Transpl. Rev. 11: 87.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Loor, F. (1973) Eur. J. Immunol. 3; 112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ahman, G.D., and Sage, H.J. (1974) Cell. Immunol. 13: 407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Inbar, M., Shinitzky, M., and Sachs, L. (1973) J. Mol. Biol. 81: 245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Karnovsky, M.J., and Unanue, E.R. (1975) Fed. Proc. 32: 57.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cunningham, B.A., Wang, J.L., Gunther, G.R., Reeke, G.N., Jr. and Becker, J.W. (1974) in “Cellular Selection and Regulation in the Immune Response” (G.M. Edelman, ed.), pp. 177.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Edelman, G.M., Yahara, I., and Wang, J.L. (1975) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 70: 1442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yahara, I. and Edelman, G.M. (1973) Nature (Lond.) 246: 152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Medrano, E., Piras, R., and Mordoh, J. (1974) Exp. Cell Res. 86: 295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wang, J.L., Gunther, G.R., and Edelman, G.M. (1975) J. Cell Biol. 66: 128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 1.
    Nowell, P.C. (1960) Cancer Res. 20: 462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 2.
    Lis, H., and Sharon, N. (1977) in “The Antigens,” (M. Sela, ed.), Vol. 4, p. 429.Google Scholar
  66. 3.
    Oppenheim, J.J., and Schechter, B. (1976) in “Manual of Clinical Immunology” (N.R. Rose, ed.), Washington: American Soc. for Microbiology, p. 81.Google Scholar
  67. 4.
    Schechter, B., Handzel, Z.T., Altman, Y., Nir, E., and Levin, S. (1976) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 27: 478.Google Scholar
  68. 5.
    Bloom, B.R. (1971) Adv. Immunol. 13: 102.Google Scholar
  69. 6.
    Granger, G.A. (1972) Ser. Haematol. 5(4): 8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 7.
    Granger, G.A., Daynes, R.A., Runge, P.E., Prieur, A.M., and Jeffes, E.W.B. (1975) in Contemp. Top. Molec. Immunol. 3:205.Google Scholar
  71. 8.
    Andersson, J., and Melchers, F. (1973) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 70: 416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 9.
    Melchers, F., and Andersson, J. (1973) Transplant. Rev. 14: 76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 10.
    Blease, R.M., Muchmore, A.V., and Nelson, D.L. (1976) in “Mitogens in Immunobiology” (J.J. Oppenheim and D.L. Rosenstreich, eds.), p. 443.Google Scholar
  74. 11.
    Lis, H., Sela, B.A., Sachs, L., and Sharon, N. (1970) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 211: 582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 12.
    Novogrodsky, A., and Katchalsky, E. (1973) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 70: 2515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 13.
    Novogrodsky, A., Lotan, R., Ravid, A., and Sharon, N. (1975) J. Immunol. 115: 1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 14.
    Novogrodsky, A. (1976) in “Mitogens in Immunobiology” (J.J. Oppenheim and D.L. Rosentriech, eds.), p. 43.Google Scholar
  78. 15.
    Andersson, J., Sjoberg, O., and Moller, G. (1972) Transpl. Rev. 11: 131.Google Scholar
  79. 16.
    Greaves, M.F., Bauminger, S., and Janossy, G. (1972) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 10: 537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 17.
    Stobo, J.D., Rosenthal, A.S., and Paul, W.E. (1972) J. Immunol.. 108: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 18.
    Boldt, D.H., MacDermott, R.P., and Jordan, E.P. (1975) J. Immunol. 114: 1532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 19.
    Krug, U., Holtenberg, M.D., and Cuatrecasas, P. (1973) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 52: 305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 20.
    Toyoshima, S., and Osawa, T. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250: 1657.Google Scholar
  84. 21.
    Presant, C.A., and Kornfeld, S. (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247: 6937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 22.
    Weber, T. (1973) Experientia 29: 863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 23.
    Novogrodsky, A., Biniaminov, M., Ramot, B., and Katchalsky, E. (1972) Blood 40: 311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 24.
    Kornfeld, S., and Siemers, C. (1974) J. Biol. Chem. 249: 1295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 25.
    Stein, M.D., Sage, H.J., and Leon, M.A. (1972) Arch. Biophys. Biochem. 150: 412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 26.
    Betel, I., and Van den Berg, K.J. (1972) Eur. J. Biochem. 30: 571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 27.
    Inbar, M., Ben-Bassat, H., and Sachs, L. (1973) Int. J. Cancer 12: 93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 28.
    Allan, D., and Crumpton, M.J. (1973) Exp. Cell Res. 78: 271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 29.
    Scatchard, G. (1949) Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 51: 660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 30.
    Prujansky, A., Ravid, A., and Sharon, N. (1978) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 508: 137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 31.
    Loontiens, F.G., Clegg, R.M., Van Landschoot, A., and Jovin, T.M. (1977) Eur. J. Biochem. 78: 465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 32.
    Loontiens, F.G., Clegg, R.M., and Jovin, T.M. (1977) Biochemistry 16: 159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 33.
    Barnett, R.E., Scott, R.E., Furcht, L.T., and Kersey, J.H. (1974) Nature 249: 464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 34.
    Schechter, B., Lis, H., Lotan, R., Novogrodsky, A., and Sharon, N. (1976) Eur. J. Immunol. 6: 145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 35.
    Ruddon, R.W., Weisenthal, L.M., Lundeen, D.E., Bessler, W., and Goldstein, I.J. (1974) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 71: 1848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 36.
    Prujansky, A., Ravid, A., Lis, H., and Sharon, N. (1978) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, in press.Google Scholar
  100. 37.
    Ravid, A., Novogrodsky, A., and Wilchek, M. (1978) Eur. J. Immunol. 8: 289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 38.
    Greaves, M.F., and Bauminger, S. (1972) Nature New Biol. 235: 67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 39.
    Gunther, G.R., Wang, J.L., Yahara, I., Cunningham, B.A., and Edelman, G.M. (1973) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci US 70: 1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 40.
    Sela, B.A., Wang, J.L., and Edelman, G.M. (1975) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 72: 1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 41.
    Beppu, N., Terao, T., and Osawa, T. (1975) J. Biochem. 79: 1113.Google Scholar
  105. 42.
    Fraser, A.R., Heraperly, T.T., Wang, J.L., and Edelman, G.M. (1976) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 73: 790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 43.
    Ellner, J.J., Lipski, P.E., and Rosenthal, A.S.(1976) J. Immunol. 116: 876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 44.
    Lipski, P.E., Ellner, J.J., and Rosenthal, A.S. (1976) J. Immunol. 116: 868.Google Scholar
  108. 45.
    Rosenstreich, D.L., and Wilton, J.M. (1975) in “Immune Recognition” (A.S. Rosenthal, ed.), p. 113.Google Scholar
  109. 46.
    Rosenstreich, D.L., Farrar, J.J., and Dougherty, S. (1976) J. Immunol. 116: 131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 47.
    Frye, L.D., and Edidin, M. (1970) J. Cell. Sci. 7: 319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 48.
    Taylor, R.B., Duffus, P.H., Raff, M.C., and de Petris, S. (1971) Nature New Biol. 233: 225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 49.
    Sharon, N., and Lis, H. (1975) Methods in Membr. Biol. 3: 143.Google Scholar
  113. 50.
    Nicolson, G.L. (1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 457: 57; 458: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 51.
    Ahmann, G.B., and Sage, H.J. (1974) Cell. Immunol. 10: 183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 52.
    Betel, I., and Van den Berg, K.J. (1972) Eur. J. Biochem. 30:571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 53.
    Ono, M., Maruta, H., and Mizuno, D. (1973) J. Biochem. 73:235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 54.
    Greaves, M.F., and Janossy, G. (1972) Transpl. Rev. 11: 87.Google Scholar
  118. 55.
    Loor, F. (1973) Eur. J. Immunol. 3; 112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 56.
    Ahman, G.D., and Sage, H.J. (1974) Cell. Immunol. 13: 407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 57.
    Inbar, M., Shinitzky, M., and Sachs, L. (1973) J. Mol. Biol. 81: 245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 58.
    Karnovsky, M.J., and Unanue, E.R. (1975) Fed. Proc. 32: 57.Google Scholar
  122. 59.
    Cunningham, B.A., Wang, J.L., Gunther, G.R., Reeke, G.N., Jr. and Becker, J.W. (1974) in “Cellular Selection and Regulation in the Immune Response” (G.M. Edelman, ed.), pp. 177.Google Scholar
  123. 60.
    Edelman, G.M., Yahara, I., and Wang, J.L. (1975) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 70: 1442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 61.
    Yahara, I. and Edelman, G.M. (1973) Nature (Lond.) 246: 152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 62.
    Medrano, E., Piras, R., and Mordoh, J. (1974) Exp. Cell Res. 86: 295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 63.
    Wang, J.L., Gunther, G.R., and Edelman, G.M. (1975) J. Cell Biol. 66: 128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bilha Schechter
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cell BiologyThe Weizmann Institute of ScienceRehovotIsrael

Personalised recommendations