Dental Development: A Measure of Physical Maturity

  • Arto Demirjian
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 30)


Dental development is a measure of physical maturity, which can be used from birth to adolescence, in parallel with skeletal maturity (bone age) and pubertal maturity, as indicated by the secondary sex characteristics and menarche.


Permanent Tooth Skeletal Maturity Root Resorption Permanent Dentition Dental Development 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acheson, R. M., 1954, A method of assessing skeletal maturity from radiographs: a report from The Oxford Child Health Survey, J. Anat., 88: 498.Google Scholar
  2. Bambach, M., Saracci, R., and Young, H. B., 1973, Emergence of deciduous teeth in Tunisian children in relation to sex and social class, Hum. Biol., 45: 435.Google Scholar
  3. Bean, R. B., 1914, Eruption of teeth as physiological standard for testing development, Pedagog. Sem., 21: 596.Google Scholar
  4. Beik, A. K., 1913, Physiological age and school entrance, Pedagog. Sem., 20: 283.Google Scholar
  5. Billewicz, W. Z., Thomson, A. M., Baber, F. M., and Field, C. E., 1973, The development of primary teeth in Chinese (Hong Kong) children, Hum. Biol., 45: 229.Google Scholar
  6. Billewicz, W. Z., and McGregor, I. A., 1975, Eruption of permanent teeth in West African (Gambian) children in relation to age, sex and physique, Ann. Hum. Biol., 2: 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brook, A. H., and Barker, D. K., 1972, Eruption of teeth among the racial groups of Eastern New Guinea: A correlation of tooth eruption with calendar age, Arch. Oral Biol., 17: 751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brook, A. H., and Barker, D. K., 1973, The use of deciduous tooth eruption for the estimation of unknown chronological age, J. Trop. Pediatr. Environ. Child Health, 19: 234 (monogr. no. 28).Google Scholar
  9. Brown, T., 1978, Tooth emergence in Australian Aboriginals, Ann. Hum. Biol., 5: 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cattell, P., 1928, “Dentition as a Measure of Maturity,” Harvard Monographs in Education, No. 9, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  11. Delgado, H., Habicht, J.-P., Yarbrough, C., Lechtig, A., Martorell, R., Malina, R. M., and Klein, R. E., 1975, Nutritional status and the timing of deciduous tooth eruption, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 28: 216.Google Scholar
  12. Demirjian, A., Goldstein, H., and Tanner, J. M., 1973, A new system of dental age assessment, Hum. Biol., 45: 211.Google Scholar
  13. Demirjian, A., and Goldstein, H., 1976, New systems for dental maturity based on seven and four teeth, Ann. Hum. Biol., 3: 411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Demirjian, A., 1978, Dentition, in: “Human Growth,” vol. 2, F. Falkner and J. M. Tanner, eds., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Demisch, A., and Wartmann, P., 1956, Calcification of the mandibular third molar and its relation to skeletal and chronological age in children, Child Dev., 27: 459.Google Scholar
  16. Edler, R. J., 1977, Dental and skeletal ages in hypopituitary patients, J. Dent. Res., 56: 1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. El Lozy, M., Reed, R. B., Kerr, G. R., Boutourline, E., Tesi, G., Ghamry, M. T., Stare, F. J., Kallal, Z., Turki, M., and Hemaidan, N., 1975, Nutritional correlates of child development in southern Tunisia. IV. The relation of deciduous dental eruption to somatic development, Growth, 39: 209.Google Scholar
  18. Falkner, F., 1957, Deciduous tooth eruption, Arch. Dis. Child., 32: 386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fanning, E. A., 1961, A longitudinal study of tooth formation and root resorption, N. Z. Dent. J., 57: 202.Google Scholar
  20. Ferguson, A. D., Scott, R. B., and Bakwin, H., 1957, Growth and development of Negro infants, J. Pediatr., 50: 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Filipsson, R., 1975, A new method for assessment of dental maturity using the individual curve of number of erupted permanent teeth, Ann. Hum. Biol., 2: 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Filipsson, R., and Hall, K., 1975, Prediction of adult height of girls from height and dental maturity at ages 6–10 years, Ann. Hum. Biol., 2: 355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garn, S. M., Lewis, A. B., Koski, P. K., and Polacheck, D. L., 1958, The sex difference in tooth calcification, J. Dent. Res., 37: 561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Garn, S. M., Lewis, A. B., and Polacheck, D. L., 1959, Variability of tooth formation, J. Dent. Res., 38: 135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Garn, S. M., Sandusky, S. T., Nagy, J. M., and Trowbridge, F. L., 1973, Negro-Caucasoid differences in permanent tooth emergence at a constant income level, Arch. Oral Biol., 18: 609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gleiser, I., and Hunt, E. E., Jr., 1955, The permanent mandibular first molar: its calcification, eruption and decay, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 13: 253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Green, L. J., 1961, The interrelationships among height, weight, and chronological, dental and skeletal ages, Angle Orthod., 31: 189Google Scholar
  28. Greulich, W. W., and Pyle, S. I., 1959, “Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development of the Hand and Wrist,”, 2nd ed., Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  29. Gren, A. M., 1962, Prediction of tooth emergence, J. Dent. Res., 41: 573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gyulavari, O., 1966, Dental and skeletal development of children with low birth weight, Acta Paediatr. Acad. Sci. Hung., 7: 301Google Scholar
  31. Healy, M. J. R., and Goldstein, H., 1976, An approach to the scaling of categorized attributes, Biometrika, 63: 219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Helm, S., and Seidler, B., 1974, Timing of permanent tooth emergence in Danish children, Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol., 2: 212.Google Scholar
  33. Hotz, R., 1959, The relation of dental calcification to chronologi- cal and skeletal age, Europ. Orthod. Soc., 1959: 140.Google Scholar
  34. Hurme, V. O., 1949, Ranges of normalcy in the eruption of permanent teeth, J. Dent. Child., 16: 11.Google Scholar
  35. Infante, P. F., and Owen, G. M., 1973, Relation of chronology of deciduous tooth emergence to height, weight, and head circumference in children, Arch. Oral Biol., 18: 1411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnsen, D. C., 1977, Prevalence of delayed emergence of permanent teeth as a result of local factors, J.A.D.A., 94: 100.Google Scholar
  37. Knott, V. B., and Meredith, H. V., 1966, Statistics on eruption of the permanent dentition from serial data for North American white children, Angle Orthod., 36: 68.Google Scholar
  38. Lacey, K. A., 1973, Relationship between bone age and dental development, Lancet, 2: 736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lavelle, C. L. B., 1976, The timing of tooth emergence in four population samples, J. Dent., 4: 231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee, M. M. C., Chan, S. T., Low, W. D., and Chang, K. S. F., 1965, Eruption of the permanent dentition of southern Chinese children in Hong Kong, Arch. Oral Biol., 10: 849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lewis, A. B., and Garn, S. M., 1960, The relationship between tooth formation and other maturational factors, Angle Orthod., 30: 70.Google Scholar
  42. MacKay, D. H., and Martin, W. J., 1952, Dentition and physique of Bantu children, J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 55: 265.Google Scholar
  43. Malcolm, L. A., and Bue, B., 1970, Eruption times of permanent teeth and the determination of age in New Guinean children, Trop. Geog. Med., 22: 307.Google Scholar
  44. McGregor, I. A., Thomson, A. M., and Billewicz, W. Z., 1968, The development of primary teeth in children from a group of Gambian villages, and critical examination of its use for estimating age, Br. J. Nutr., 22: 307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Meredith, H. V., 1946, Order and age of eruption for the deciduous dentition, J. Dent. Res., 25: 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Moorrees, C. F. A., Fanning, E. A., and Hunt, E. E., Jr., 1963, Age variation of formation stages for ten permanent teeth, J. Dent. Res., 42: 1490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Moorrees, C. F. A., and Kent, R. L., Jr., 1978, A step function model using tooth counts to assess the developmental timing of the dentition, Ann. Hum. Biol., 5: 55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mukherjee, D. K., 1973, Deciduous dental eruption in low income group Bengali Hindu children, J. Trop. Pediatr. Environ. Child Health, 19: 207.Google Scholar
  49. Myllärniemi, S., Lenko, H. L., and Perheentupa, J., 1978, Dental maturity in hypopituitarism, and dental response to substitution treatment, Scand. J. Dent. Res., 86: 307.Google Scholar
  50. Nanda, R. S., and Chawla, T. N., 1966, Growth and development of dentitions in Indian children. I. Development of permanent teeth, Am. J. Orthod., 52: 837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nolla, C. M., 1960, The development of the permanent teeth. J. Dent. Child., 27: 254.Google Scholar
  52. Prahl-Andersen, B., and Van’t Hof, M. A., 1979, Dental skeletal disharmony and malocclusion, J. Dent. Res., 58: 366.Google Scholar
  53. Robinow, M., 1973, The eruption of the deciduous teeth (factors involved in timing), J. Trop. Pediatr. Environ. Child Health, 19: 200 (monograph no. 28).Google Scholar
  54. Roche, A. F., Barkla, D. H., and Maritz, J. S., 1964, Deciduous eruption in Melbourne children, Aust. Dent. J., 9: 106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sapoka, A. A. M., and Demirjian, A., 1971, Dental development of the French-Canadian child, J. Can. Dent. Assoc., 37: 100.Google Scholar
  56. Saunders, E., 1837, “The Teeth a Test of Age, Considered with Reference to the Factory Children,” H. Renshaw, London.Google Scholar
  57. Sears, R., Nazif, M., Zullo, T., 1979, Effects of sickle cell disease on dental and skeletal maturation, J. Dent. Res., 58: 270.Google Scholar
  58. Steel, G. H., 1965, The relation between dental maturation and physiological maturity, Dent. Pract., 16: 23.Google Scholar
  59. Tanner, J. M., Whitehouse, R. H., Healy, M. J. R., and Goldstein, H., 1972, “Standards for Skeletal Age,” Centre International de l’Enfance, Paris.Google Scholar
  60. Tanner, J. M., Whitehouse, R. M., Marshall, W. A., Healy, M. J. R., and Goldstein, H., 1975, “Assessment of Skeletal Maturity and Prediction of Adult Height: TW2 Method,” Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  61. Trupkin, D. P., 1974, Eruption patterns of the first primary tooth in infants who were underweight at birth, J. Dent. Child., 41: 279.Google Scholar
  62. Voors, A. W., and Metselaar, 1958, The reliability of dental age as a yardstick to assess the unknown calendar age, Trop. Geogr. Med., 10: 175.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arto Demirjian
    • 1
  1. 1.Université de MontréalMontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations