Advertisement

The Measurement of Body Composition

  • Robert M. Malina
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 30)

Abstract

Measurement of the body’s composition is more complex than the measurement of body size. Although studies of height and weight provide valuable information in understanding growth processes, both provide only dimensional data. Height is a linear measurement, while weight is a measure of body mass; as such they provide limited information about body composition. Hence, much effort has been expended in quantifying the body’s composition in vivo (Brožek and Henschel, 1961; Brožek, 1963a, 1965; Garn, 1961, 1963; National Academy of Sciences, 1968; Bergner and Lushbaugh, 1967; Malina, 1969; Forbes, 1978). This report offers an overview of selected methods for measuring body composition, with specific emphasis on those used in growth studies.

Keywords

Body Composition Lean Body Mass Body Density Total Body Water Skinfold Thickness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, T.H., Peng, M.T., Chen, K.P., Huang, T.F., Chang, C., and Fang, H.S., 1956, Prediction of total adiposity from skinfolds and the curvilinear relationship between external and internal viscosity, Metabolism, 5: 346.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, E.C., 1963, Three-component body composition analysis based upon potassium and water determinations, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, E.C., and Langham, W.H., 1959, Average potassium concentration of the human body as a function of age, Science, 130: 713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behnke, A.R., 1961, Comment on the determination of whole body density and a resume of body composition data, in: “Techniques for Measuring Body Composition,” Broek, J., and Henschel, A. (eds.), Nat. Acad. Sci.-Nat. Res. Council, Washington, p. 118.Google Scholar
  5. Behnke, A.R., 1963, Anthropometric evaluation of body composition throughout life, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Behnke, A.R., 1969, New concepts of height-weight relationships, in: “Obesity,” N.L. Wilson (ed.), F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, p. 25.Google Scholar
  7. Behnke, A.R., and Wilmore, J.H., 1974, “Evaluation and Regulation of Body Build and Composition,” Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  8. Behnke, A.R., Guttentag, O.E., and Brodsky, C., 1959, Quantification of body weight and configuration from anthropometric measurements, Human Biol., 31: 213.Google Scholar
  9. Bergner, P.E., and Lushbaugh, C.C. (eds.), 1967, “Compartments, Pools, and Spaces in Medical Physiology,” U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington.Google Scholar
  10. Bergstrom, J., 1962, Muscle electrolyes in man, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 14, Suppl. 68.Google Scholar
  11. Bergstrom, J., 1975, Percutaneous needle biopsy of skeletal muscle in physiological and clinical research, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 35: 609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boddy, K., King, P.C., Tothill, P., and Strong, J.A., 1971, Measurement of total body potassium with a shadow shield whole-body counter: calibration and errors, Phys. Med. Biol., 16: 275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boileau, R.A., Horstman, D.H., Buskirk, E.R., and Mendez, J., 1972, The usefulness of urinary creatinine excretion in estimating body composition, Med. Sci. Sports, 4: 85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bonnet, F.P., Duckerts, M., and Heuskin, A., 1976, Subcutaneous adipose tissue growth in normal and obese children: methodological problems, in: “The Adipose Child,” Z. Laron (ed.), Karger, Basel, p. 104.Google Scholar
  15. Booth, R.A.D., Goddard, B.A., and Paton, A., 1966, Measurement of fat thickness in man: a comparison of ultrasound, calipers and electrical conductivity, Br. J. Nutr., 20: 719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bouterline-Young, H., 1969, Arm measurements as indicators of body composition in Tunisian children, J. Trop. Pediat., 15: 222.Google Scholar
  17. Brook, C.G.D., 1971, Composition of human adipose tissue from deep and subcutaneous sites, Br. J. Nutr., 25: 377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brook, C.G.D., 1972, Evidence for a sensitive period in adipose-cell replication in man, Lancet, 2: 624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brook, C.G.D., Lloyd, J.K., and Wolf, O.H., 1972, Relation between age of onset of obesity and size and number of adipose cells, Br. Med. J., 2: 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown, W.J., and Jones, P.R.M., 1977, The distribution of body fat in relation to habitual activity, Ann. Human Biol., 4: 537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brozek, J., 1961, Editor’s comment, in: “Techniques for Measuring Body Composition,” J. Brozek and A. Henschel (eds.), Nat. Acad. Sci.-Nat. Res. Council, Washington D.C., p. 120.Google Scholar
  22. Brozek, J. (ed.), 1963a, Body composition, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110:1.Google Scholar
  23. Brozek, J., 1963b, Quantitative description of body composition: Physical anthopology’s “fourth” dimension, Current Anthrop., 4: 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brozek, J. (ed.), 1965, Human body composition, Symp. Soc. Human Biol., 7:1.Google Scholar
  25. Brozek, J., 1966, Body composition: models and estimation equations, Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 24: 239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brozek, J., and Henschel, A., (eds.), 1961, “Techniques for Measuring Body Composition,” Nat. Acad. Sci.-Nat. Res. Council, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  27. Brozek, J., and Kinzey, W., 1960, Age changes in skinfold compressibility, J. Gerontol., 15: 45.Google Scholar
  28. Brozek, J., and Mori, H., 1958, Some interrelations between somatic, roentgenographic and densitometric criteria of fatness, Human Biol., 30: 322.Google Scholar
  29. Brozek, J., Grande, F., Anderson, J.T., and Keys, A., 1963, Densitometric analysis of body composition: revision of some quantitative assumptions, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brozek, J., Mori, H., and Keys, A., 1958, Estimation of total body fat from roentgenograms, Science, 128: 901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bullen, B.A., Quaade, F., Olesen, E., and Lund, S.A., 1965, Ultrasonic reflections used for measuring subcutaneous fat in humans, Human Biol., 37: 375.Google Scholar
  32. Burke, E.R., Cernÿ, F., Costill, D., and Fink, W., 1977, Characteristics of skeletal muscle in competitive cyclists, Med. Sci. Sports, 9: 109.Google Scholar
  33. Burkinshaw, L., and Cotes, J.E., 1973, Body potassium and fat-free mass, Clin. Sci., 44: 621.Google Scholar
  34. Burkinshaw, L., Jones, P.R.M., and Krupowicz, D.W., 1973, Observer error in skinfold thickness measurements, Human Biol., 45: 273.Google Scholar
  35. Buskirk, E.R., 1961, Underwater weighing and body density: A review of procedures, in: “Techniques for Measuring Body Composition,” Brozek, J., and Henschel, A. (eds.), Nat. Acad. Sci.-Nat. Res. Council, p. 90.Google Scholar
  36. Bylund, A.-C., Bjurö, T., Cederblad, G., Holm, J., Lundholm, K., Sjöström, M., Angquist, K.A., and Schersten, T., 1977, Physical training in man: Skeletal muscle metabolism in relation to muscle morphology and running ability, Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 36: 151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cameron, J.R., Mazess, R.B., and Sorenson, J.A., 1968, Precision and accuracy of bone mineral determination by direct photon absorptiometry, Invest. Radiol., 3: 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cheek, D.B., (ed.), 1968, “Human Growth,” Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  39. Cheek, D.B., 1974, Body composition, hormones, nutrition, and adolescent growth, in: “Control of the Onset of Puberty,” M.M. Grumbach, G.D. Grave, and F.E. Mayer (eds.), Wiley, New York, p. 424.Google Scholar
  40. Cheek, D.B., 1975, Growth and body composition, in: “Fetal and Postnatal Cellular Growth: Hormones and Nutrition,” D.B. Cheek, (ed.), Wiley, New York, p. 389.Google Scholar
  41. Cheek, D.B., and Hill, D.E., 1970, Muscle and liver cell growth: role of hormones and nutritional factors, Fed. Proc., 29: 1503.Google Scholar
  42. Cheek, D.B., Holt, A.B., Hill, D.E., and Talbert, J.L., 1971, Skeletal muscle cell mass and growth: the concept of the deoxyribonucleic acid unit, Pediat. Res., 5: 312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chien, S., Peng, M.T., Chen, K.P., Huang, T.F., Chang, C., and Fang, H.S., 1975, Longitudinal studies on adipose tissue and its distribution in human subjects, J. Appl. Physiol., 39: 825.Google Scholar
  44. Clarke, H.H., Geser, L.R., and Hunsdon, S.B., 1956, Comparison of upper arm measurements by use of roentgenogram and anthropometric techniques, Res. Quart., 27: 379.Google Scholar
  45. Clegg, E.J., and Kent, C., 1967, Skinfold compressibility in young adults, Human Biol., 39: 418.Google Scholar
  46. Cohn, S.H., and Dombrowski, C.S., 1970, Absolute measurement of whole-body potassium by gamma-ray spectrometry, J. Nucl. Med., 11: 239.Google Scholar
  47. Cohn, S.H., Abesamis, C., Zanzi, I., Aloia, J.F., Yasumura, S., and Ellis, K.J., 1977, Body elemental composition: comparison between black and white adults, Amer. J. Physiol., 232: E419.Google Scholar
  48. Comstock, G.W., and Livesay, V.T., 1963, Subcutaneous fat determinations from a community-wide chest x-ray survey in Muscogee County, Georgia, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Costill, D.L., Daniels, J., Evans, W., Fink, W., Krahenbuhl, G., and Saltin, B., 1976, Skeletal muscle enzymes and fiber composition in male and female track athletes, J. Appl. Physiol., 40: 149.Google Scholar
  50. Crenier, E.J., 1966, La prédiction du poids corporel normal, Biométr. Hum., 1: 10.Google Scholar
  51. Cureton, K.J., Boileau, R.A., and Lohman, T.G., 1975, A comparison of densitometric, potassium-40 and skinfold estimates of body composition in prepubescent boys, Human Biol., 47: 321.Google Scholar
  52. Damon, A., and Goldman, R.F., 1964, Predicting fat from body measurements: densitometric validations of ten anthropometric equations, Human Biol., 36: 32.Google Scholar
  53. Durnin, J.V.G.A., and Rahaman, M.M., 1967, The assessment of the amount of fat in the human body from measurements of skinfold thickness, Br. J. Nutr., 21: 681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Durnin, J.V.G.A., and Womersley, J., 1974, Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years, Br. J. Nutr., 32: 77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Flynn, M.A., Woodruff, C., Clark, J., and Chase, G., 1972, Total body potassium in normal children, Pediat. Res., 6: 239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fomon, S.J., 1967, Body composition of the male reference infant during the first year of life, Pediatrics, 40: 863.Google Scholar
  57. Forbes, G.B., 1978, Body composition in adolescence, in: “Human Growth, Volume 2,” F. Falkner and J.M. Tanner (eds.), Plenum, New York, p. 239.Google Scholar
  58. Forbes, G.B., and Bruining, G.J., 1976, Urinary creatinine excretion and lean body mass, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 29: 1359.Google Scholar
  59. Forbes, G.B., and Hursh, J.B., 1963, Age and sex trends in lean body mass calculated from K4° measurements, with a note on the theoretical basis for the procedure, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Forbes, G.B., Schultz, F., Cafarelli, C., and Amirhakimi, G.H., 1968, Effects of body size on potassium-40 measurement in the whole body counter (tilt-chair technique), Health Phys., 15: 435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Frisancho, A.R., 1974, Triceps skin fold and upper arm muscle size norms for assessment of nutritional status, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 27: 1052.Google Scholar
  62. Frerichs, R.F., Harsha, D.W., and Berenson, G.S., 1979, Equations for estimating percentage of body fat in children 10–14 years, Pediat. Res., 13: 170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Garn, S.M., 1955, Relative fat patterning: An individual characteristic, Human Biol., 27: 75.Google Scholar
  64. Garn, S.M., 1956, Comparison of pinch-caliper and x-ray measurements of skin plus subcutaneous fat, Science, 124: 178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Garn, S.M., 1957, Selection of body sites for fat measurement, Science, 125: 550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Garn, S.M., 1961, Radiographic analysis of body composition, in: “Techniques for Measuring Body Composition,” J. Brozek and A. Henschel (eds.), Nat. Acad. Sci.-Nat. Res. Council, Washington D.C., p. 36.Google Scholar
  67. Garn, S.M., 1963, Human biology and research in body composition, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Garn, S.M., 1970, “The Earlier Gain and the Later Loss of Cortical Bone in Nutritional Perspective,” C C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  69. Garn, S.M., and Gorman, E.L. 1956, Comparison of pinch-caliper and measurements of subcutaneous fat, teleroentgenogrammetric Human Biol., 28: 407.Google Scholar
  70. Garn, S.M., and Haskell, J.A 1959, Fat changes during adolescence, Science, 129: 1615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Garn, S.M., and Saalberg, J.H., 1953, Sex and age differences in the composition of the adult leg, Human Biol., 25: 144.Google Scholar
  72. Garrow, J.S., Fletcher, K., and Halliday, D., 1965, Body composition in severe infantile malnutrition, J. Clin. Invest., 44: 417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Green, H.J., Thomson, J.A., Daub, W.D., Houston, M.E., and Ranney, D.A., 1979, Fiber composition, fiber size and enzyme activities in vastus lateralis of elite athletes involved in high intensity exercise, Europ. J. Appl. Physiol., 41: 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gurney, J.M., 1969, Field experience in Abeokuta, Nigeria (with special reference to differentiating protein and calorie reserves), J. Trop. Pediat., 15: 225.Google Scholar
  75. Gurney, J.M., and Jelliffe, D.B., 1973, Arm anthropometry in nutritional assessments: nomogram for rapid calculation of muscle circumference and cross-sectional muscle and fat areas, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 26: 912.Google Scholar
  76. Gurr, M.I., and Kirtland, J., 1978, Adipose tissue cellularity: a review, 1, Techniques for studying cellularity, Int. J. Obesity, 2: 401.Google Scholar
  77. Hager, A., 1977, Adipose cell size and number in relation to obesity, Postgrad. Med. J., 53 (suppl. 2):101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hager, A., Sjöström, L., Arvidsson, B., Björntorp, P., and Smith, U., 1977, Body fat and adipose tissue cellularity in infants: a longitudinal study, Metabolism, 26: 607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hammond, W.H., 1955, Measurement and interpretation of subcutaneous fat, with norms for children and young adult males, Br. J. Prey. Soc. Med., 9: 201.Google Scholar
  80. Hampton, M.C., Huenemann, R.L., Shapiro, L.R., Mitchell, B.W., and Behnke, A.R., 1966, A longitudinal study of gross body composition and body conformation and their association with food and activity in a teen-age population: anthropometric estimation of body build, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 19: 422.Google Scholar
  81. Harsha, D.W., Frerichs, R.R., and Berenson, G.S., 1978, Densitometry and anthropometry of black and white children, Human Biol., 50: 261.Google Scholar
  82. Haymes, E.M., Lundegren, H.M., Loomis, J.L., and Buskirk, E.R., 1976, Validity of the ultrasonic technique as a method of measuring subcutaneous adipose tissue, Ann. Human Biol., 3: 245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Heald, F.P., Hunt, E.E., Jr., Schwartz, R., Cook, C.D., Elliot, O., and Vajda, B., 1963, Measures of body fat and hydration in adolescent boys, Pediatrics, 31: 226.Google Scholar
  84. Heymsfield, S.B., Olafson, R.P., Kutner, M.H., and Nixon, D.W., 1979, A radiographic method of quantifying protein-calorie undernutrition, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 32: 693.Google Scholar
  85. Hirsch, J., and Gallian, E., 1968, Methods for the determination of adipose cell size in man and animals, J. Lipid Res., 9: 110.Google Scholar
  86. Hirsch, J., Farquhuar, J.W., Ahrens, E.H., Peterson, M.L., and Stoffel, W., 1960, Studies of adipose tissue in man, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 8: 499.Google Scholar
  87. Hoppeler, H., Luthi, P., Claasen, H., Weibel, E.R., and Howald, H., 1973, The ultrastructure of the normal human skeletal muscle, Pflugers Arch., 344: 217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hunt, E.E., Jr., and Heald, F.P., 1963, Physique, body composition, and sexual maturation in adolescent boys, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ikai, M., and Fukunaga, T., 1968, Calculation of muscle strength per unit cross-sectional area of human muscle by means of ultrasonic measurement, Int. Z. Angew. Physiol., 26: 26.Google Scholar
  90. Ikai, M., and Fukunaga, T., 1970, A study on training effect onstrength per unit cross-sectional area of muscle by means of ultrasonic measurement, Int. Z. Angew. Physiol., 28: 173.Google Scholar
  91. Jelliffe, E.P.P., and Jelliffe, D.B. (eds.), 1969, The arm circumference as a public health index of protein-calorie malnutrition of early childhood, J. Trop. Pediat., 15: Mgh. 8, p. 177.Google Scholar
  92. Johnston, F.E., 1979, Anthropometry and nutritional status, Paper prepared for Workshop on Nutrition and Health Status Indicators, La Jolla, Ca., unpublished.Google Scholar
  93. Johnston, F.E., and Malina, R.M., 1966, Age changes in the composition of the upper arm in Philadelphia children, Human Biol., 38: 1.Google Scholar
  94. Johnston, F.E., and Malina, R.M., 1970, Correlations of midshaft breadths and compact bone thickness among bones of the upper and lower extremities of children aged 6 to 16 years, Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 32: 323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Johnston, F.E., Hamill, P.V.V., and Lemeshow, S., 1974, Skinfold thickness of youths 12–17 years, United States, “Vital and Health Statistics, Series 11, Number 132,” National Center for Health Statistics, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  96. Keys, A., and Brozek, J., 1953, Body fat in adult man, Physiol Rev., 33: 245.Google Scholar
  97. Kirtland, J., and Gurr, M.I., 1979, Adipose tissue cellularity: a review, 2, The relationship between cellularity and obesity, Int. J. Obesity, 3: 15.Google Scholar
  98. Knittle, J.L., 1972, Obesity in childhood: a problem in adipose tissue cellular development, J. Pediat., 81: 1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Knittle, J.L., 1978, Adipose tissue development in man, in: “Human Growth, Volume 2,” F. Falkner and J.M. Tanner (eds.), Plenum, New York, p. 295.Google Scholar
  100. Knittle, J.L., Ginsberg-Fellner, F., and Brown, R.E., 1977, Adipose tissue development in man, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 30: 762.Google Scholar
  101. Knittle, J.L., Timmers, K., Ginsberg-Fellner, F., Brown, R.E., and Katz, D.P., 1979, The growth of adipose tissue in children and adolescents, J. Clin. Invest., 63: 239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Krotkiewski, M., Sjöström, L., Björntorp, P. and Smith, U., 1975, Regional adipose tissue cellularity in relation to metabolism in young and middle-aged women, Metabolism, 24: 703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Krzywicki, H.J., Ward, G.M., Rahman, D.P., Nelson, R.A., and Consolazio, C.F., 1974, A comparison of methods for estimating human body composition, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 27: 1380.Google Scholar
  104. Lohman, T.G., Bioleau, R.A., and Massey, B.H., 1975, Prediction of lean body mass in young boys from skinfold thickness and body weight, Human Biol., 47: 245.Google Scholar
  105. Lohman, T.G., Slaughter, M.H., Selinger, A., and Boileau, R.A., 1978, Relationship of body composition to somatotype in college men, Ann. Human Biol., 5: 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Maaser, R., 1972, Die Ultraschallmessung der subcutanen Fettgewebsdicke zur Beurteilung des Ernahrungszustandes von Kindern, Z. Kinderheilk., 112: 321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Malina, R.M., 1969, Quantification of fat, muscle and bone in man, Clin. Orthop., 65: 9.Google Scholar
  108. Malina, R.M., 1973, Biological substrata, in: “Comparative Studies of Blacks and Whites in the United States,” K.S. Miller and R.M. Dreger (eds.), Seminar Press, New York, p. 53.Google Scholar
  109. Malina, R.M., 1978, Growth of muscle tissue and muscle mass, in: “Human Growth, Volume 2,” F. Falkner and J.M. Tanner (eds.), Plenum, New York, p. 273.Google Scholar
  110. Malina, R.M., and Johnston, F.E., 1967, Relations between bone, muscle and fat widths in the upper arms and calves of boys and girls studied cross-sectionally at ages 6 to 16 years, Human Biol., 39: 211.Google Scholar
  111. Maresh, M., 1966, Changes in tissue widths during growth, Amer. J. Dis. Child., 111: 142.Google Scholar
  112. Maresh, M.M., 1970, Measurements from roentgenograms, heart size, long bone lengths, bone, muscle and fat widths, skeletal maturation, in: “Human Growth and Development,” R.W. McCammon (ed.), C.C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, p. 155.Google Scholar
  113. Maresh, M., and Groome, D.S., 1966, Potassium-40 serial determinations in infants, Pediatrics, 38: 642.Google Scholar
  114. Martorell, R., Yarbrough, C., Lechtig, A., Delgado, H., and Klein, R.E., 1976, Upper arm anthropometric indicators of nutritional status, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 29: 46.Google Scholar
  115. Matiegka, J., 1921, The testing of physical efficiency, Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 4: 223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Mazess, R.B., 1968, Estimation of bone and skeletal weight by the direct photon absorptiometric method, Paper presented at the Symposium on Skeletal Mineralization, American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Annual meeting, Detroit.Google Scholar
  117. Mazess, R.B., and Cameron, J.R., 1972, Growth of bone in school children: comparison of radiographic morphometry and photon absorptiometry, Growth, 36: 77.Google Scholar
  118. Mazess, R.B., Cameron, J.R., and Sorenson, J.A., 1970, A comparison of methods for determining bone mineral content, in: “Progress in Methods of Bone Mineral Measurement,” G.D. Whedon and J.R. Cameron (eds.), U.S. Dept. HEW, Washington D.C., p. 455.Google Scholar
  119. Mazess, R.B., Judy, P.F., Wilson, C.R., and Cameron, J.R., 1973, Progress in clinical use of photon absorptiometry, in: “Clinical Aspects of Metabolic Bone Disease,” B. Frame, A.M. Parfitt and H.M. Duncan (eds.), Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p. 37.Google Scholar
  120. Mellits, E.D., and Cheek, D.B., 1970, The assessment of body water and fatness from infancy to adulthood, Mon. Soc. Res. Child. Dev., 35 (serial no. 140): 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Michael, E.D., and Katch, F.I., 1968, Prediction of body density from skin-fold and girth measurements of 17-year-old boys, J. Appl. Physiol., 25: 747.Google Scholar
  122. Moore, F.D., Olesen, K.H., McMurrey, J.D., Parker, H.V., Ball, M.R., and Boyden, C.M., 1963, “The Body Cell Mass and Its Supporting Environment,” Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  123. Myhre, L.G., and Kessler, W.V., 1966, Body density and potassium 40 measurements of body composition as related to age, J. Appl. Physiol., 21: 1251.Google Scholar
  124. Nagamine, S., Yamakawa, K., Isobe, S., Ichinose, Y., and Kaga, A., 1967, Body composition in adolescence, in: “Annual Report of the National Institute of Nutrition,” Tokyo, p. 57.Google Scholar
  125. Nagamine, S., Yamakawa, K., Oshima, S., Ichonise, Y., Isobe, S., Tsuji, E., and Suzuki, S., 1968, Body composition of Japanese school children, in: “Annual Report of the National Institute of Nutrition,” Tokyo, p. 37.Google Scholar
  126. National Academy of Sciences, 1968, “Body composition in Animals and Man,” National Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  127. Nichols, B.L., Hazlewood, C.F., and Barnes, D.J., 1968, Percutaneous needle biopsy of quadriceps muscle: potassium analysis in normal children, J. Pediat., 72: 840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Novak, L.P., 1966, Total body water and solids in six-to sevenyear-old children: differences between the sexes, Pediatrics, 38: 483.Google Scholar
  129. Novak, L.P., 1967, Total body water in man, in: “Compartments, Pools, and Spaces in Medical Physiology,” P.E. Bergner and C.C. Lushbaugh (eds.), U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, p. 197.Google Scholar
  130. Novak, L.P., Hammamoto, K., Orvis, A.L., Burke, E.C., 1970, Total body potassium in infants, Amer. J. Dis. Child., 119: 419.Google Scholar
  131. Parizkovâ, J., 1961, Total body fat and skinfold thickness in children, Metabolism, 10: 794.Google Scholar
  132. Piechaczek, H., 1975, Oznaczanie caXkowitego tXuszczu ciaa metodami densytometryczn4 i antropometryczn4, Mat. Prac. Antrop. (WrocXaw), 89: 3.Google Scholar
  133. Pierson, R.N., Lin, D.H.Y., and Phillips, R.A., 1974, Total-body potassium in health: effects of age, sex, height, and fat, Amer. J. Physiol., 226: 206.Google Scholar
  134. Prince, F.P., Hikida, R.S., and Hagerman, F.C., 1976, Human muscle fiber types in power lifters, distance runners and untrained subjects, Pflugers Arch., 363: 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Reynolds, E.L., 1944, Differential tissue growth in the leg during childhood, Child Dev., 15: 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Reynolds, E.L., 1948, Distribution of tissue components in the female leg from birth to maturity, Anat. Rec., 100: 621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Reynolds, E.L., 1950, The distribution of subcutaneous fat in childhood and adolescence, Mon. Soc. Res. Child Dev., 15, no. 2Google Scholar
  138. Reynolds, E.L., and Clark, L.C., 1947, Creatinine excretion, growth progress and body structure in normal children, Child Dev., 18: 155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Reynolds, E.L., and Grote, P., 1948, Sex differences in the distribution of tissue components in the human leg from birth to maturity, Anat. Rec., 102: 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Ruiz, L., Colley, J.R.T., and Hamilton, P.J.S., 1971, Measurement of triceps skinfold thickness, Brit. J. Prey. Soc. Med., 25: 165.Google Scholar
  141. Salans, L.B., Horton, E.D., and Sims, E.A.H., 1971, Experimental obesity in man: cellular character of the adipose tissue, J. Clin. Invest., 50: 1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sanchez, C.L., and Jacobson, H.N., 1978, Anthropometry measurements, a new type, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 31: 1116.Google Scholar
  143. Sheng, H-P., and Huggins, R.A., 1979, A review of body composition studies with emphasis on total body water and fat, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 32: 630.Google Scholar
  144. Singh, R., 1967, A study of fat, muscle, bone, and comparison between roentgenogrammetric and somatometric methods for assessing subcutaneous fat and muscle thickness in the upper arm of adult males, Z. Morph. Anthrop., 58: 308.Google Scholar
  145. Siri, W.E., 1956, The gross composition of the body, Adv. Biol. Med. Physics, 4: 239.Google Scholar
  146. Siri, W.E., 1961, Body composition from fluid spaces and density: Analysis of methods, in: “Techniques for Measuring Body Composition,” J. Brozek and A. Henschel (eds.), Nat. Acad. Sci.Nat. Res. Council, Washington, p. 223.Google Scholar
  147. Sjöström, L., Björntorp, B., and Vrana, J., 1971, Microscopic fat cell size measurements on frozen-cut adipose tissue in comparison with automatic determinations of osmium-fixed fat cells, J. Lipid Res., 12: 521.Google Scholar
  148. Sloan, A.W., 1967, Estimation of body fat in young men, J. Appl. Physiol., 23: 311.Google Scholar
  149. Steinkamp, R.C., Cohen, N.L., Gaffey, W.R., McKey, T., Bron, G., Siri, W.E., Sargent, T.W., and Isaacs, E., 1965, Measures of body fat and related factors in normal adults, II, A simple clinical method to estimate body fat and lean body mass, J. Chron. Dis., 18: 1291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Stitt, K.R., 1962, “Skinfold Measurement; A Method of Determining Subcutaneous Fat: An Annotated Bibliography,” Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
  151. Stouffer, J.R., 1963, Relationship of ultrasonic measurements and x-rays to body composition, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Stuart, H.C., and Dwinell, P.H., 1942, The growth of bone, muscle and overlying tissues in children six to ten years of age as revealed by studies of roentgenograms of the leg area, Child Dev., 13: 195.Google Scholar
  153. Stuart, H.C., and Sobel, E.H., 1946, The thickness of the skin and subcutaneous tissue by age and sex in childhood, J. Pediat., 28: 637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Stuart, H.C., Hill, P., and Shaw, C., 1940, The growth of bone, muscle and overlying tissues as revealed by studies of roentgenograms of the leg area, Mon. Soc. Res. Child Dev., 5, no. 3Google Scholar
  155. Talbert, J.L., and Haller, J.A., 1968, Muscle biopsy technique in infants and children, in: “Human Growth,” D.B. Cheek (ed.), Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, p. 649.Google Scholar
  156. Tanner, J.M., 1962, “Growth at Adolescence,” (2nd. ed.), Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  157. Tanner, J.M., 1965, Radiographic studies of body composition in children and adults, Symp. Soc. Human Biol., 7: 211.Google Scholar
  158. Tanner, J.M., 1968, Growth of bone, muscle and fat during childhood and adolescence, in: “Growth and Development of Mammals,” G.A. Lodge and G.E. Lamming (eds.), Plenum, New York, p. 3.Google Scholar
  159. Thorstensson, A., 1976, Muscle strength, fibre types and enzyme activities in man, Acta Physiol. Scand., Suppl. 443.Google Scholar
  160. Von Döbeln, W., 1959, Anthropometric determination of fat-free body weight, Acta Med. Scand., 165:37.Google Scholar
  161. Wedgwood, R.J., 1963, Inconstancy of the lean body mass, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Widdowson, E.M., 1970, Harmony of growth, Lancet, 1: 901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wilmore, J.H., and Behnke, A.R., 1969, An anthropometric estimation of body density and lean body weight in young men, J. Appl. Physiol., 27: 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wilmore, J.H., and Behnke, A.R., 1970. An anthropometric estimation of body density and lean body weight in young women, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 23: 267.Google Scholar
  165. Womersley, J., Boddy, K., King, P.C., and Durnin, J.V.G.A., 1972, A comparison of the fat-free mass of young adults estimated by anthropometry, body density and total body potassium content, Clin. Sci., 43: 469.Google Scholar
  166. Womersley, K., Durnin, J.V.G.A., Boddy, K., and Mahaffy, M., 1976, Influence of muscular development, obesity, and age on the fat-free mass of adults, J. Appl. Physiol., 41: 223.Google Scholar
  167. Young, C.M., Blondin, J., Tensuan, R., and Fryer, J.H., 1963b, Body composition studies of “older” women, thirty to seventy years of age, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Young, C.M., Sipin, S.S., and Roe, D.A., 1968, Body composition studies of pre-adolescent and adolescent girls, III, Predicting specific gravity, J. Amer. Diet. Assoc., 53: 469.Google Scholar
  169. Young, C.M., Tensuan, R.S., Sault, F., and Holmes, F., 1963a, Estimating body fat of normal young women, Visualizing fat pads of soft-tissue x-rays, J. Amer. Diet.Assoc., 42: 409.Google Scholar
  170. Zavaleta, A.N., and Malina, R.M., unpublished, Densitometric estimates of body composition in Mexican-American boys.Google Scholar
  171. Ziegler, E.E., O’Donnell, A.M., Nelson, S.E., and Fomon, S.J., 1976, Body composition of the reference fetus, Growth, 40: 329.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert M. Malina
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of TexasAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations