Psychosocial Factors in Human Growth

Deprivation and Failure to Thrive
  • Paolo Parisi
  • Violetta de Martino
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 30)


In a 13th century chronicle attributed to the Franciscan Salimbene of Parma, the King of Sicily and then Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II von Hohenstaufen, is reported to have performed an experiment “to find out what kind of speech ... children would have when they grew up, if they spoke to no one beforehand. So, he bade foster mothers and nurses to suckle the children, to bathe and to wash them, but in no way to prattle with them or to speak to them ... But -- the medieval historian concludes -- he labored in vain, because the children all died. For they could not live without the petting and the joyful faces and loving words of their foster mothers.”


Human Growth Foster Mother Maternal Deprivation Extra Food Infant Monkey 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ainsworth, M. D., Andry, R. G., Harlow, R. G., Lebovici, S., Mead, M., Prugh, D. G., and Woottoon, B., 1962, Deprivation of maternal care: A reassessment of its effects, WHO Public Health Papers, 14, Geneva.Google Scholar
  2. Bakwin, H., 1942, Loneliness in infants, Am. J. Dis. Child., 63: 30.Google Scholar
  3. Bakwin, H., 1949, Emotional deprivation in infants, J. Pediatr., 35: 512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowlby, J., 1951, Maternal care and mental health, WHO Monogr. Ser., 2: 67.Google Scholar
  5. Bowlby, J., 1958, The nature of a child’s ties to his mother, Int. J. Psychoanal., 39: 350.Google Scholar
  6. Bullard, D. M., Jr., Glaser, H. H., Heagarty, M. C., and Pivchik, E. C., 1967, Failure to thrive in the “neglected” child, Am. J. Orthopsychiatry, 37: 680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Casler, L., 1961, Maternal deprivation: A critical review of the current literature, Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev., 26: 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coleman, R. W., and Provence, S., 1957, Environmental retardation (hospitalism) in infants living in families, Pediatrics, 19: 2 85.Google Scholar
  9. De Toni, G., 1972, Il ritardo dell’accrescimento somatico come conseguenza della privazione delle cure materne e di un’ appropriata stimolazione emozionale, Minerva Pediatr., 24: 2037.Google Scholar
  10. Elmer, E., 1960, Failure to thrive - Role of the mother, Pediatrics, 25: 717.Google Scholar
  11. Engel, G. L., and Reichsman, F., 1956, Spontaneous and experimentally induced depression in infant with gastric fistula, J. Am. Psychoanal. Assoc., 4: 428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Engel, G. L., Reichsman, F., and Segal, H., 1956, A study of an infant with a gastric fistula. I. Behavior and the rate of total hydrochloric acid secretion, Psychosom. Med., 18: 374.Google Scholar
  13. Fisch, R. O., Bilek, M. S., Deinard, A. S., and Chang, P.-N., 1976, Growth, behavioral, and psychologic measurements of adopted children: The influences of genetic and socioeconomic factors in a prospective study, J. Pediatr., 89: 494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fischhoff, J., Whitten, C. F., and Pettit, M. G., 1971, A psychiatric study of mothers of infants with growth failure secondary to maternal deprivation, J. Pediatr., 79: 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frasier, S. D., and Rallison, M. L., 1972, Growth retardation and emotional deprivation: Relative resistance to treatment with human growth hormone, J. Pediatr., 80: 603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fried, R., and Mayer, M. F., 1948, Socio-emotional factors accounting for growth failure in children living in institution, J. Pediatr., 33: 444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gesell, A., and Amatruda, C. S., 1941, “Developmental Diagnosis,” Paul B. Hoeber, Medical Division of Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Hannaway, P. J., 1970, Failure to,thrive - A study of 100 infants and children, Clin. Pediatr., 9: 96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harlow, H. F., and Zimmermann, R. R., 1959, Affectional responses in the infant monkey, Science, 130: 421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hinde, R. A., and Spencer-Booth, Y., 1971, Effects of brief separation from mother on Rhesus monkeys, Science, 173: 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hufton, I. W., and Oates, R. K., 1977, Nonorganic failure to thrive: A long-term follow-up, Pediatrics, 59: 73.Google Scholar
  22. Kaufman, I. C., and Rosenblum, L. A., 1969, Effects of separation from mother on the emotional behavior of infant monkeys, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 159: 681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kerr, G. R., Chamove, A. S., and Harlow, H. F., 1969, Environmental deprivation: Its effect on the growth of infant monkeys. J. Pediatr., 75: 833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kerr, M. A. D., Bogues, J. L., and Kerr, D. S., 1978, Psychosocial functioning of mothers of malnourished children, Pediatrics, 62: 778.Google Scholar
  25. Krieger, I., and Good, M. H., 1970, Adrenocortical and thyroid function in the deprivation syndrome. Comparison with growth failure due to undernutrition, congenital heart disease, or prenatal influences, Am. J. Dis. Child., 120: 95.Google Scholar
  26. Krieger, I., and Mellinger, R. C., 1971, Pituitary function in the deprivation syndrome, J. Pediatr., 79: 216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leonard, M. F., Rhymes, J. P., and Solnit, A. J., 1966, Failure to thrive in infants, Am. J. Dis. Child., 111: 600.Google Scholar
  28. MacCarthy, D., and Booth, E. M., 1971, Parental rejection and stunting of growth, J. Psychosom. Res., 14: 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mitchell, G. D., Raymond, E. J., Ruppenthal, G. C., and Harlow, H. F., 1966, Long-term effects of total social isolation upon behavior of Rhesus monkeys, Psychol. Rep., 18: 567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moyes, C. D., 1976, Adverse factors affecting growth of school- children in St. Helena, Arch. Dis. Childh., 51: 435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Neligan, G. A., and Prudham, D., 1976, Family factors affecting child development, Arch. Dis. Childh., 51: 853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Oates, R. K., and Yu, J. S., 1971, Children with non-organic failure to thrive: A community problem, Med. J. Aust., 2: 199.Google Scholar
  33. O’Callaghan, M. J., and Hull, D., 1978, Failure to thrive or failure to rear?, Arch. Dis. Childh., 53: 788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Olshin, I. J., 1968, Problems in growth, Pediatr. Clin. North Am., 15: 433.Google Scholar
  35. Patton, R. G., and Gardner, L. I., 1962, Influence of family environment on growth: The syndrome of “maternal deprivation”, Pediatrics, 30: 957.Google Scholar
  36. Patton, R. G., and Gardner, L. I., 1963, “Growth Failure in Maternal Deprivation,” Charles C Thomas, Springfield.Google Scholar
  37. Pimstone, B. L., Barbezat, G., Hansen, J. D., and Murray, P., 1968, Studies on growth hormone secretion in protein-calorie malnutrition, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 21: 482.Google Scholar
  38. Pollak, M., 1979, Housing and mothering, Arch. Dis. Childh., 54: 54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Powell, G. F., Brasel, J. A., and Blizzard, R. M., 1967a, Emotional deprivation and growth retardation simulating idiopathic hypopituitarism. I. Clinical evaluation of the syndrome, N. Engl. J. Med., 276: 1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Powell, G. F., Brasel, J. A., Raiti, S., and Blizzard, R. M., 1967b, Emotional deprivation and growth retardation simulating idiopathic hypopituitarism. II. Endocrinologic evaluation of the syndrome, N. Engl. J. Med., 276: 1279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rayner, P. H. W., and Rudd, B. T., 1973, Emotional deprivation in three siblings associated with functional pituitary growth hormone deficiency, Aust. Paediatr. J., 9: 79.Google Scholar
  42. Senn, M. J. E., 1945, Influence of psychological factors on the nutrition of children, Am. J. Public Health, 35: 212.Google Scholar
  43. Shaheen, E., Alexander, D., Truskowsky, M., and Barbero, G. J., 1968, Failure to thrive - A retrospective profile, Clin. Pediatr., 7: 255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sills, R. H., 1978, Failure to thrive - The role of clinical and laboratory evaluation, Am. J. Dis. Child., 132: 967.Google Scholar
  45. Silver, H. K., and Finkelstein, M., 1967, Deprivation dwarfism, J. Pediatr., 70: 317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Siroky, J., Pelikan, L., Farkova, H., Mores, A., and Koluchova, J., 1971, Schweres Deprivationssyndrom bei einem Zwillingspaar nach langdauernder sozialer Isolation, Folia Phoniatr., 23: 355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Spitz, R. A., 1945, Hospitalism - An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood, Psychoanal. Stud. Child., 1: 53.Google Scholar
  48. Spitz, R. A., 1946a, Hospitalism - A follow-up investigation described in volume I, 1945, Psychoanal. Stud. Child., 2: 113.Google Scholar
  49. Spitz, R. A., 1946b, Anaclitic depression, Psychoanal. Stud. Child., 2: 313.Google Scholar
  50. Steinhausen, H.-Ch., 1973, Psychologische Merkmale verschiedener Formen des Minderwuchses, Acta Paedopsychiatr., 39: 278.Google Scholar
  51. Stewart, A. H., 1954, Excessive infant crying (colic) in relation to parent behavior, Am. J. Psychiatry, 110: 687.Google Scholar
  52. Talbot, N. B., Sobel, E. H., Burke, B. S., Lindemann, E., and Kaufman, S. B., 1947, Dwarfism in healthy children: Its possible relation to emotional, nutritional and endocrine disturbances, N. Engl. J. Med., 236: 783.Google Scholar
  53. Talbot, N. B., 1963, Has psychologic malnutrition taken the place of rickets and scurvy in contemporary pediatric practice?, Pediatrics, 31: 909.Google Scholar
  54. Yarrow, L., 1961, Maternal deprivation: Toward an empirical and conceptual re-evaluation, Psychol. Bull., 58: 459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Whitten, C. F., Pettit, M. G., and Fischhoff, J., 1969, Evidence that growth failure from maternal deprivation is secondary to undereating, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 209: 1675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Widdowson, E. M., 1951, Mental contentment and physical growth, Lancet, 260: 1316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Parisi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Violetta de Martino
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medical GeneticsUniversity of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.The Mendel InstituteRomeItaly
  3. 3.Institute of PsychiatryUniversity of RomeItaly

Personalised recommendations