Advertisement

Ageing, Continuous Changes of Adulthood

  • Charles Susanne
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 30)

Abstract

Developmental processes or changes in morphology continue after puberty. Ageing is difficult to define, since it is a continuous process and it is impossible to distinguish between effects related only to time and the effects of degenerative diseases. These diseases are the cause or the result of senescence. The theories of ageing are very numerous but it is quite clear that the processes of formation or destruction are present in all stages from conception to death, the ratio between the processes being, however, different. There is no clear starting point of senescence.

Keywords

Lateral Radiograph Secular Change Human Longevity Transverse Study Anthropometric Change 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbie, A., 1967, Skinfold thickness in Australian aborigines, Arch. Phys. Anthr. in Oceania, 2:207.Google Scholar
  2. Abraham, S., Johnson, C. L., and Carroll, M. D., 1978, “Total Serum Cholesterol Levels of Adults 18–74 Years,” Vital and Health Statistics, Series 11, No. 205, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  3. Alexopoulos, C., and Babitis, P., 1976, Age dependence of T lymphocytes, Lancet, 1: 426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Astrand, I., Astrand, P. O., Hallback, I., and Kilborn, A., 1973, Reduction in maximal oxygen uptake with age, J. Appl. Physiol., 35: 649.Google Scholar
  5. Augener, W., Cohen, G., Reuter, A., and Bittinger, G., 1974, Decrease of T lymphocytes during ageing, Lancet, 1: 1164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartucz, L., 1917, Die Körpergrösse der heutigen Magyaren, Arch. Anthrop., 15: 44.Google Scholar
  7. Beeton, M., and Pearson, K., 1901, On the inheritance of the duration of life, and on the intensity of natural selection of man, Biometrika, 1: 50.Google Scholar
  8. Boas, F., 1935, Studies in growth, Hum. Biol., 7: 303.Google Scholar
  9. Boersma, H., 1974, Alteration of skull dimensions in aged persons, J. Dent. Res., 53: 678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borkan, G. A., and Norris, A. H., 1977, Fat redistribution and the changing body dimensions of the adult male, Hum. Biol., 49: 495.Google Scholar
  11. Bourlière, F., 1963, Principes et méthodes de mesure de l’âge biologique chez l’homme, Bull. et Mém. Soc. d’Anthropologie de Paris, 4: 561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bourlière, F., Clement, F., and Parot, S., 1966, Normes de vieillisement morphologique et physiologique d’une population de niveau socio-économique élevé de la région parisienne, Bull. et Mém. Soc. d’Anthrop. Paris, 10: 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brozek, J., 1965, Age trends and adult sex differences in body composition, Homenaje a Juan Comas, Mexico, Editorial, Libros de Mexico, Mexico.Google Scholar
  14. Büchi, E. C., 1950, Aenderung der Körperform beim erwachsenen Menschen, Anthrop. Forsch. (Anthrop. Gesellsch. in Wien), 1:1.Google Scholar
  15. Carlsson, G. E., and Persson, G., 1967, Morphologic changes of the mandible after extraction and wearing of dentures. A longitudinal clinical and X-ray cephalometric study covering 5 years, Odont. Rev., 18: 27.Google Scholar
  16. Coon, C. S., 1950, The mountain of giants: a racial and cultural study of the North Albanian mountain Ghegs, Pap. Peabody Mus., 23: 106.Google Scholar
  17. Crognier, E., 1969, Données biométriques sur l’état de nutrition d’une population Africaine tropicale: Les Sara du Tchad, Biometrie humaine, 4: 37.Google Scholar
  18. Dahlberg, G., and Wahlund, S., 1941, “The Race Biology of the Swedish Lapps,” I I, Anthropometrical survey, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  19. Damon, A., 1965, Discrepancies between findings of longitudinal and cross-sectional studies in adult life: physique and physiology, Hum. Dev., 8: 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dequeker, J., 1972, Bone loss in normal and pathological conditions, Diss. Univ. Leuven, Belgium.Google Scholar
  21. Epker, B. N., and Frost, H. M., 1966, Periosteal appositional bone growth from age two to age seventy in man, A tetracycline evaluation, Anat. Rec., 154: 573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Epker, B., Kelvin, M., and Frost, H., 1965, Magnitude and location of cortical bone loss in human rib with ageing, Clin. Orthop., 41: 198.Google Scholar
  23. Ericksen, M. F., 1978, Aging in the lumbar spine III: L5, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 48: 247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fenart, R., Deblock, R., and Dufresnoy, P., 1975, Modifications apportées par la sénescence, au profil cranien, en orientation vestibulaire, Bull. Soc. Anthr. Paris, 13: 231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Forbes, G. B., 1976, The adult decline in lean body mass, Hum. Biol., 48: 161.Google Scholar
  26. Garn, S. M., Rohmann, C. G., Wagner, B., and Ascoli, W., 1967, Continuing bone growth throughout life: a general phenomenon, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 26: 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goldstein, M. S., 1943, Demographic and bodily changes in descendants of Mexican immigrants with comparable data on parents and children in Mexico, Publ. Inst. Latin American Studies, Univ. Texas (cited by Lasker, 1953 ).Google Scholar
  28. Gsell, 1966, Longitudinale Alterforschung, Med. Wochenschrift, 96: 1541.Google Scholar
  29. Harvey, R. G., 1974, An anthropometric survey of growth and physique of the populations of Karkar Island and Lufa subdistrict, New Guinea, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B., 268: 279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hertzog, K., Garn, S. M., and Hempy, H., 1969, Partitioning the effects of secular trend and ageing on adult stature, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 31: 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Himes, J. H., and Mueller, W. H., 1977a, Ageing and secular change in adult stature in rural Colombia, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 46: 275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Himes, J. H., and Mueller, W. H., 1977b, Age associated statural loss and socio-economic status, J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 25: 171.Google Scholar
  33. Hooton, E. A., and Dupertuis, C. W., 1951, Age changes and selective survival in Irish males, Stud. Phys. Anthropol., 2: 1.Google Scholar
  34. Hrdlicka, A., 1935, The Pueblos, with comparative data on the bulk of the tribes of southwest and northern Mexico, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 20: 235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Inokuchi, S., Ishikawa, H., Iwamoto, S., and Kimura, T., 1975, Age-related changes in the histological composition of the rectus abdominis muscle of the adult human, Hum. Biol., 47: 231.Google Scholar
  36. Israel, H., 1968, Continuing growth in the human cranial skeleton, Arch. Oral Biol., 13: 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Israel, H., 1970, Continuing growth in sella turcica with age, Am. J. Roent. Rad. Ther. and Nucl. Med., 108: 516.Google Scholar
  38. Israel, H., 1971, “The impact of aging upon the adult cranio-facial skeleton,” Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Alabama.Google Scholar
  39. Israel, H., 1973, Age factor and the pattern of change in cranio- facial structures, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 39: 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jalavisto, E., 1951, Inheritance of longevity according to Finnish and Swedish geneologies, Ann. Med. Int. Fenn., 40: 263.Google Scholar
  41. Jarcho, A., 1935, Die Aeltersveranderungen der Rassenmerkmale bei Erwachsenen, Anthrop. Anz., 12: 173.Google Scholar
  42. Jarvik, L. F., Falek, A., Kallmann, F. J., and Lorge, I., 1960, Survival trends in a senescent twin population, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 12: 170.Google Scholar
  43. Jung, K. W., and Arnold, J. S., 1972, Variation in osteoid pattern with age in human vertebrae, Okajimas Folia Anat. Jap., 49: 157.Google Scholar
  44. Kallmann, F. J., 1957, Twin data on the genetics of ageing, in: “Colloquia on Ageing,” (Ciba Foundation, No. 3 ), Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  45. Kaufmann, H., Hagler, K., and Lang, R., 1958, Analyse anthropologique et statistique de Walsers orientaux et de Romanches de l’Oberhallstein, Arch. Suisses Anthrop. Gén., 23: 1.Google Scholar
  46. Kendrick, G. S., and Risinger, H. L., 1967, Changes in the anteroposterior dimensions of the human male skull during the third and fourth decade of life, Anat. Rec., 159: 77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Keys, A., Taylor, H. L., and Grande, F., 1973, Basal metabolism and age of adult man, Metabolism, 22: 579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kokich, V. G., 1976, Age changes in the human frontozygomatic suture from 20 to 95 years, Am. J. Orthod., 69: 411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lasker, G. W., 1953, The age factor in bodily measurements of adult male and female Mexicans, Hum. Biol., 25: 50.Google Scholar
  50. Lee, M. C., and Lasker, G. W., 1958, The thickness of subcutaneous fat in elderly men, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 16: 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lipscomb, F. M., and Parnell, R. W., 1954, The physique of Chelsea pensioners, J. Royal Army Med. Corps, 100: 247.Google Scholar
  52. Manson, J. D., and Lucas, R. B., 1962, A microradiographic study of the age changes in the human mandible, Arch. Oral Biol., 7: 761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Marquer, P., and Chamla, M. C., 1961, L’évolution des caractères morphologiques en fonction de l’âge chez 2,089 Fran5ais de 20 â 91 ans., Bull, et Mém. Soc. d’Anthrop. Paris, 2: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Master, A. M., Lasser, R. P., and Bechman, G., 1959, Analysis of weight and height of apparently healthy population, ages 65 to 94 years, Proc. Soc. Expt. Biol. Med., 102: 367.Google Scholar
  55. Meema, S., Reid, D. B. W., and Meema, H. E., 1975, Age trends of bone mineral mass, muscle width and subcutaneous fat in normals and osteoporotics, Calcif. Tissue Res., 12: 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Miall, W., Ashcroft, M., Lovell, H., and Moore, F., 1967, A longitudinal study of the decline of adult height with age in two Welsh communities, Hum. Biol., 39: 445.Google Scholar
  57. Milne, J. S., and Lauder, I. J., 1974, Age effects in kyphosis and lordosis in adults, Ann. Hum. Biol., 1: 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Moretti, I., 1953, Comportamento della menopausa in gamelle mono-e biovulari, Fol. Hered. Path. (Pavia), 2: 1.Google Scholar
  59. Nishimura, H., and Shimizu, S., 1963, Studies on various ageing phenomena in Japanese twins and siblings, Acta Genet. Med., 12: 22.Google Scholar
  60. Nöllenburg, W. auf der, 1932, Statistische Untersuchungen über die Erblichkeit der Lebenslange, Z. Konstit.-Lehre, 16: 707.Google Scholar
  61. Norris, A. H., Lundy, T., and Shock, N. W., 1963, Trends in selected indices of body composition in men between the ages of 30 and 80 years, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pařízková, J., 1963, Impact of age, diet and exercise on man’s body composition, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pařízkovs, J., and Eisett, E., 1971, A further study on changes in somatic characteristics and body composition of old men followed longitudinally for 8–10 years, Hum. Biol., 43: 318.Google Scholar
  64. Parot, S., 1959, Les variations de poids liées â l’âge: étude transversale â taille constante, Rev. Soc. Biom. Humaine, 1: 78.Google Scholar
  65. Parot, S., 1961, Recherches sur la biométrie du vieillissement humain, Bull. et Mém. Soc. d’Anthrop. Paris, 2: 299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pearl, R., 1931, Studies on human longevity, IV: The inheritance of longevity (preliminary report), Hum. Biol., 3: 245.Google Scholar
  67. Pearl, R., and Dewitt, R., 1934, Studies on human longevity, IV: The distribution and correlation of variation in the total immediate ancestral longevity of nonagenarians and centenarians, in relation to the inheritance factor in duration of life, Hum. Biol., 6: 98.Google Scholar
  68. Pfitzner, W., 1899, Social-anthropologische Studien, I. Der Einfluss des Lebens alters auf die anthropologischen Charaktere, Z. Morph. Anthrop., 1: 325.Google Scholar
  69. Philippe, P., 1978, Familial correlations of longevity: an isolate-based study, Am. J. Med. Genet., 2: 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Polednak, A. P., 1978, Age changes in differential leukocyte count among female adults, Hum. Biol., 50: 301.Google Scholar
  71. Quetelet, A., 1870, Anthropométrie ou mesure des différentes facultés de l’Homme, Bachelier, Bruxelles.Google Scholar
  72. Roberts, J., 1975, “Blood Pressure of Persons 18–74 Years,” Vital and Health Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, DHEW Pub. No. (HRA) 75–1632, Series 11, No. 150, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  73. Roberts, J., and Maurer, K., 1978, “Blood Pressure Levels of Persons 6–74 Years,” Vital and Health Statistics, Series 11, No. 203, National Center for Health Statistics, DHEW Pub. No. (HRA) 78–1648, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  74. Sacher, G. A., 1975, Maturation and longevity in relation to cranial capacity in hominid evolution, in: “Primates: Functional Morphology and Evolution,” R. Tuttle, ed., Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
  75. Sailer, K., 1930, Die Fehmaraner, Deutsche Rassenkunde, 4:1.Google Scholar
  76. Sailer, K., 1931, Süderdithmarsische Geestbevölkerung, Deutsche Rassenkunde, 7: 1.Google Scholar
  77. Semine, A. A., and Damon, A., 1975, Costochondral ossification and ageing in five populations, Hum. Biol., 47: 101.Google Scholar
  78. Shock, N. W., Watkin, D. M., Yiengst, M. J., Norris, A. H., Gaffney, G. W., Gregerman, R. I., and Falzone, J. A., 1963, Age differences in water content of the body as related to basal oxygen consumption in males, J. Geront., 18: 1.Google Scholar
  79. Simons, J. W., and Van den Broek, C., 1970, Comparison of ageing in vitro and in vivo by means of cell size analysis using a Coulter counter, Gerontologia, 16: 340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sinclair, D., 1973, “Human Growth After Birth,” Oxford Univ. Press, London.Google Scholar
  81. Sinnett, P. F., Keig, G., and Craig, W., 1973, Nutrition and age-related changes in body build of adults: Studies in a New Guinea Highland community, Hum. Biol. in Oceania, 2:50.Google Scholar
  82. Slome, C., Campel, B., Abramson, J. H., and Scotch, N., 1960, Weight, height and skinfold thickness of Zulu adults in Durban, South Afr. Med. J., 34: 505.Google Scholar
  83. Smith, R. W., and Walker, R. R., 1964, Femoral expansion in aging women: Implications for osteoporosis and fractures, Science, 145: 156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Stoessiger, B., 1932, On the inheritance of duration of life and cause of death, Ann. Eugen. (Lond.), 5: 105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Susanne, C., 1967, Les changements de la taille liés à l’âge Phénomènes normaux de sénescence), L’Anthropologie, 72:297.Google Scholar
  86. Susanne, C., 1971, Hérédité des caractères anthropologiques mesurables, Bull. et Mém. Soc. d’Anthrop. Paris, 7: 169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Susanne, C., 1974, Les changements morphologiques liés à l’âge, L’Anthropologie, 78: 693.Google Scholar
  88. Susanne, C., 1977, Individual age changes of the morphological characteristics, J. Hum. Evol., 6: 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Swash, M., and Fox, K. P., 1972, The effect of age on human skeletal muscle. Studies of the morphology and innervation of muscle spindles, J. Neurol. Sci., 16: 417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Takahashi, E., and Atsumi, H., 1955, Age differences in the thoracic form as indicated by thoracic index, Hum. Biol., 27: 65.Google Scholar
  91. Tallgren, A., 1967, The effect of denture wearing on facial morphology. A 7-year longitudinal study, Acta Odont. Scand., 25: 563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tallgren, A., 1974, Neurocranial morphology and ageing: a longitudinal roentgen cephalometric study of adult Finnish women, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 41: 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tanaka, J., 1975, A radiographic analysis on human lumbar vertebrae in the aged, Virchows Arch. A. Path. Anat. and Hist., 366: 187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Thompson, J. L., and Kendrick, G. S., 1964, Changes in the vertical dimensions of the human male skull during the third and fourth decades of life, Anat. Rec., 150: 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Trotter, M., and Gleser, G., 1951, The effect of ageing on stature, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 9: 311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Trotter, M., Peterson, R. R., and Wette, R., 1968, The secular trend in the diameter of the femur of American whites and Negroes, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 28: 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Trotter, M., and Hixon, B. H., 1974, Sequential changes in weight, density and percentage ash weight of human skeletons from an early fetal period through old age, Anat. Rec., 179: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Von Verschuer, O., 1954, “Wirksame Faktoren im Leben des Menschen, Beobachtungen an ein-and zweieiigen Zwillingen durch 25 Jahre,” Steiner, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  99. Virtama, P., and Helela, T., 1969, Radiographic measurements of cortical bone, Acta Radiol., Suppl. 293: 1.Google Scholar
  100. Vogt, A., Wagner, H., Richner, H., and Meyer, G., 1939, Das Senium bei eineiigen and zweieiigen Zwillingen, Arch. Klaus-Stift. Vererb.-Forsch., 14: 475.Google Scholar
  101. Walford, R. L., 1967, The role of auto-immune phenomena in the ageing process, Symp. Soc. Ex. Biol., XXI, “Aspects of the Biology of Ageing.”Google Scholar
  102. Weissenberg, S., 1895, Die Südrussischen Juden, Arch. Anthrop., 23: 347.Google Scholar
  103. Wessel, J. A., Ufer, A., Van Huss, W. D., and Cederquist, D., 1963, Age trends of various components of body composition and functional characteristics in women aged 20–69 years, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wolanski, N., and Pyzuk, M., 1973, Psychomotor properties in 1.5–99 year old inhabitants of Polish rural areas, Studies in Hum. Ecology, 1: 134.Google Scholar
  105. Young, C. M., Blondin, J., Tensuan, R., and Fryer, J. H., 1963, Body composition studies of older women, thirty to seventy years of age, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles Susanne
    • 1
  1. 1.Free University BrusselsBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations