Flight Motor Innervation of a Flesh Fly

  • Kazuo Ikeda


A considerable number of papers have been published on the anatomy of the dipteran flight system. The early papers especially have become classical for their precise descriptions of thoracic musculature (Hammond, 1879; Luks, 1883; Ritter, 1911; Mihályi, 1935; Behrendt, 1940; Williams and Williams, 1943; Tiegs, 1955) and the central nervous system (Hertweck, 1931; Vater, 1961). In addition, histological (Mangold, 1905; Marcu, 1929; Tiegs, 1955; Auber, 1960) and electron microscopic (Shafiq, 1964) papers have appeared on the peripheral innervation of the muscles involved in flight. The neural pathway from the CNS to those muscles, however, has not been investigated well, except for some descriptions in Hertweck’s work (1931). Physiological experiments performed in this area in the past have yielded incomplete or sometimes misleading results, mainly because of a lack of precise knowledge concerning the motor neurons (MNs) involved and their neural pathways. Thus an understanding of the neural organization in both the central and peripheral systems is essential in considering the flight mechanism.


Muscle Fiber Lateral Branch Nerve Impulse Simultaneous Recording Lower Trace 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuo Ikeda
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of NeurosciencesCity of Hope National Medical CenterDuarteUSA

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