Looking Smart: The Relationship between Affect and Intelligence in Infancy

  • Jeannette Haviland


Without being wholly conscious of it, parents, pediatricians, and particularly psychologists have used facial expression to infer the existence and development of intelligence. We use facial expression or “affect” to denote consciousness, interest, surprise, intention, fear, or frustration; then we use these states of emotions to determine motivation, knowledge, and ability. This may surprise some readers, since we claim to be looking at behavior to determine motivation, knowledge, and ability. By behavior we usually mean actions accomplished—“grasped the block,” “looked under the pillow,” “turned away.” Awareness of these actions accomplished seems to block awareness of the affect accompanying, preceding, substituting for, or following the action, even though we use affect to interpret the action.


Facial Expression Autistic Child Infant Development Motor Scale Infant Behavior 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeannette Haviland
    • 1
  1. 1.Educational Testing ServiceUSA

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