United States of America

  • E. Evan Brown


Rainbow trout is the only species of cold freshwater fish cultured commercially in the United States. It is cultured in 45 of the 48 contiguous states (Fig. 1.1). Only Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi do not culture trout. In the past 5 years, new techniques of growing out trout in the colder winter months in what is normally warm water are changing this situation. Since 1975, some trout have been grown out in catfish ponds in Mississippi but only on a pilot basis. Hence, depending on profitability, trout may soon be raised in all 50 states.


Rainbow Trout Fish Farming Channel Catfish Freshwater Prawn Brood Stock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ALLAIN, R. and MORRISON, W.R. 1978. Costs and returns for catfish fingerlings. Univ. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn., Div. Agric. Bull. 831.Google Scholar
  2. ANON. (no date.) Catfish Feeding and Growth. Bur. Sport Fish. Wildl., U.S. Dep. Inter., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  3. ANON. 1969. World’s largest trout farm. Am. Fish Farmer 1, 6–9.Google Scholar
  4. ANON. 1971A. Farming Pacific salmon in the sea: From the “Womb to the Tomb.” Fish Farming Ind. 2 (5) 6–9.Google Scholar
  5. ANON. 1971B. Fisheries statistics of the United States, 1971. U.S. Dep. Commer, Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv. Stat. Dig. 65.Google Scholar
  6. ANON. 1972A. A statistical reporting system for the catfish farming industry, methodology and 1970 results. U.S. Dep. Commer., Econ. Dev. Admin Tech. Assist. Proj. 99–6–09044–2. In cooperation with Ind. Res. and Exten. Cent. and Dep. Agric. Econ. and Rural Sociology, Univ. of Arkansas (Dec).Google Scholar
  7. ANON. 1972B. Bob Erkins talks trout marketing. Fish Farming Ind. 3 (2) 20–24.Google Scholar
  8. ANON. 1974A. 1973 Production Survey of Catfish Farming. Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., U.S. Dep. Commer., Little Rock, AR.Google Scholar
  9. ANON. 1974B. Report of National Task Force for Public Fish Hatchery Policy. U.S. Dep. Interior, Denver.Google Scholar
  10. ANON. 1975. Various articles in Commer Fish Farmer Aquaculture News 2 (1).Google Scholar
  11. ANON. 1976A. Fisheries of the United States, 1975. U.S. Dep. Commer., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., Current Fish. Stat. 6900.Google Scholar
  12. ANON. 1976B. Idaho’s water-rich Magic Valley: Heart of the food trout industry. Commer. Fish Farmer and Aquaculture News 2 (4) 4–8.Google Scholar
  13. ANON. 1976C. New Hampshire cohos. Sports Fishing Inst., Washington, D.C., Bull. 273.Google Scholar
  14. ANON. 1976D. Trout production for recreation: Peaks, valleys and a bright future. Commer. Fish Farmer and Aquaculture News 2 (4) 9–13.Google Scholar
  15. ANON. 1976–1980A. Farm-raised Catfish Processors Report. Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., Dep. Commer., Little Rock, AR.Google Scholar
  16. ANON. 1976–1980B. Processed catfish imports. Monthly Reports, Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., Dep. Commer. and Crop Rep. Board, Little Rock, AR.Google Scholar
  17. ANON. 1978. Aquaculture in the United States-Constraints and Opportunities. Comm. on Agric., Nutr. and Forestry, U.S. Senate, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  18. ANON. 1979A. A survey of commercial catfish producers. U.S. Dep. Agric. Soil Conserv. Serv. Soil Surv., Natl. Ecol. Sci. Tech. Bull. 38–9–16.Google Scholar
  19. ANON. 1979B. Propagation and distribution of fishes from National Fish Hatcheries for the fiscal year 1979. U.S. Dep. Inter. Fish Wildl. Serv., Div. Natl. Fish Hatcheries, Fish Distrib. Rep. 14.Google Scholar
  20. ANON. 1980. Aquaculture: Catfish and trout, inventory and sales, 1980. U.S. Dep. Agric. Econ. Stat. Serv., Crop Reporting Board, Stat. Bull. 644.Google Scholar
  21. ARMSTRONG, M. and BOYD, C.E. 1981. Further studies on off-flavor in channel catfish from ponds in West-Central Alabama. Dep. Fish. Allied Aquacultures, Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL. Unnumbered paper.Google Scholar
  22. AVAULT, J.W., JR. 1973A. Crawfish farming gains attention. Fish Farming Ind. 4 (1)28.Google Scholar
  23. AVAULT, J.W., JR. 1973B. Crawfish Farming in the United States. Cent. for Wetland Resour., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA.Google Scholar
  24. AVAULT, J.W., JR., DE LA BRETONNE, L., JR. and JASPERS, E.J. 1975. Culture of crawfish-Louisiana’s crustacean king. Am. Fish Farmer 1 (10) 8–14, 27.Google Scholar
  25. BENTE, P.F., JR. 1975. Pioneering the new industry of shrimp farming. Symp. Mar. Chem. in the Coastal Environment. 169th Am. Chem. Soc. Meet., Philadelphia, April 10, 1975.Google Scholar
  26. BROWN, E.E. 1977. World Fish Farming: Cultivation and Economics. AVI Publishing Co., Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  27. BROWN, E.E. and GRATZEK, J.B. 1980. Fish Farming Handbook: Food, Bait, Tropicals and Goldfish. AVI Publishing Co., Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  28. BROWN, E.E., HILL, T.K. and CHESNESS, J.L. 1974. Rainbow trout and channel catfish-A double-cropping system. Univ. Ga. Coll. Agric. Exp. Stn. Res. Rep. 196.Google Scholar
  29. BROWN, E.E., LAPLANTE, M.G. and COVEY, L.H. 1969. A synopsis of catfish framing. Univ. Ga. Coll. Agric. Exp. Stn. Res. Bull. 69.Google Scholar
  30. BURKE, R.L. and WALDROP, J.E. 1978. An economic analysis of producing pond-raised catfish for food in Mississippi. Miss. State Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 870.Google Scholar
  31. COHEN, D., FINKEL, A. and SUSSMAN, M. 1976. On the role in larviculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture 8, 199–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. COON, K.L. LARSEN, A., and ELLIS, J.E. 1968. Mechanized haul seine for use in farm ponds. Bur. Commer Fish. Reprint 57 from Fish. Ind. Res. 4 (2).Google Scholar
  33. CORBIN, J. 1981. Personal correspondence. Manager of Hawaii Aquaculture Development Program, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  34. CRAWFORD, K.W. and McCOY, E.W. 1977. Budgeting for selected aquaculture enterprises. Auburn Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 495.Google Scholar
  35. DE LA BRETTONE, L., JR. and AVAULT, J.W., JR. 1971. Liming increases crawfish production. La. Agric. 15 (1) 10.Google Scholar
  36. DILLON, O.W., JR. 1976. Aquaculture in the southern United States. FAO Tech. Conf. Aquaculture, Kyoto, Japan, May 26-June 2, 1976.Google Scholar
  37. DONALDSON, J.R. 1976. Salmon aquaculture in Oregon. Proc. Conf. Salmon Aquaculture and the Alaskan Fishing Community, Jan. 9, 10 and 11, 1976, Cordova, AK., Sea Grant Rep. 76–2.Google Scholar
  38. FINKBEINER, K. 1974. Trout farm featured at popular theme park. Aquaculture and the Fish Farmer 1 (3) 4–6.Google Scholar
  39. FOWLER, L. G. and BURROWS, R.E. 1971. The Abernathy salmon diet. U.S. Dep. Inter. Progressive Fish-culturist. 33 (2) 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. FUJIMURA, T. and OKAMOTO, H. 1970. Notes on Progress Made in Developing a Mass Culturing Technique for Macrobrachium Rosenbergii in Hawaii in Coastal Aquaculture in the Indo-Pacific Region. V. R. Pillay (Editor). Fishing News (Books), London.Google Scholar
  41. GOODWIN, H. 1977. Of prawns, people and soy sauce. In Shrimp and Prawn Farming in the Western Hemisphere. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA.Google Scholar
  42. GORANSON, E. 1973. Salmon farming gains toehold on Oregon coast. Fish Farming Ind. 4 (2) 8–11.Google Scholar
  43. GREENLAND, D., GILL, R. and HALL, J. 1971. Live cars for use in catfish industry. Commer. Fish. Rev. 33 (7–8) 44–53.Google Scholar
  44. HAGAN, K. 1972. Colorado trout dilemma: Big demand, limited production. Fish Farming Ind. 3 (5) 8–10.Google Scholar
  45. HEFFERMAN, B.E. 1974. Mt. Lassen trout farms looks to 100,000,000 eggs a year. Fish Farming Ind. 5 (4) 6–8, 29.Google Scholar
  46. HOLEMO, F.J., BROWN, E.E. and HUDSON, H. 1973. Trout fee fishing. Riv. Ital. Piscic. Ittiopatol. (Ital. J. Fish Culture) 8 (3) 73–75. (Italian)Google Scholar
  47. HOLTHUIS, L.B. 1950. The Palaemonidae Collected by the Siboga and Snellius Expeditions with Remarks on the Other Species. I. Sub-family Palaemonidae the Decapoda of the Siboga Expedition. X. Siboga Expedition Monogr. 39a9, 1–268.Google Scholar
  48. HOLTHUIS, L.B. 1952. A General Revision of the Palaemonidae (Crustacea Decapoda Natantia) of the Americas. II. The Sub-family Palaemonidae. Allan Hancock Fund, Publ. OCC Pap. 12, 11–132.Google Scholar
  49. HUNER, J.V. and AVAULT, J.W., JR. 1974. Crawfish for bait. Aquaculture and the Fish Farmer 1 (2) 12–17.Google Scholar
  50. HUNER, J.V. and AVAULT, J.W., JR. 1976. Management implications for time of fall pond flooding in Louisiana crawfish farming with emphasis on production of bait crawfish. Pap. Nat. Fish Culture Workshop, Springfield, MI., Jan. 13–15, 1976.Google Scholar
  51. JASPERS, E. and AVAULT, J.W., JR. 1969. Environmental conditions in burrows and ponds of the red swamp crawfish, Procambarus Clarki (Girard), near Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Proc. Pap. 23rd Annu. Conf. Southeastern Assoc. of Game and Fish Commissioners, Mobile, AL.Google Scholar
  52. KINNAMAN, P.V. 1975. Weyerhauser: The salmon growing company. Aquaculture and the Fish Farmer 2 (4) 4–7, 18.Google Scholar
  53. KLONTZ, G.W. and KING, J.G. 1975. Aquaculture in Idaho and Nationwide. Idaho Dep. Water Resources, Boise.Google Scholar
  54. LEE, S.R. 1979. The Hawaiian Prawn Industry. Aquaculture Dev. Program, Dep. of Planning and Econ. Development, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  55. LING. S.W. 1969A. Methods of rearing and culturing Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man). FAO (F.A.O.U.N.) Fish. Rep. 57 (3) 607–619.Google Scholar
  56. LING, S.W. 1969B. The general biology and development of Macrobrachium Google Scholar
  57. rosenbergii (de Man). FAO (F.A.O.U.N.) Fish Rep. 57 (3) 589–606. LOVELL, T. 1981. New off-flavors in pond-raised fish. Aquaculture Mag. 7 (6)Google Scholar
  58. MALECHA, S.R. 1977. Genetics and Selective Breeding of M. Rosenbergii in Shrimp and Prawn Farming in the Western Hemisphere. J.A. Hanson and H.L. Goodwin (Editors). Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA.Google Scholar
  59. MALECHA, S.R. 1980. Research and development in freshwater prawn (Macro-brachium Rosenbergii) culture in the U.S.: Current status and biological constraints with emphasis on breeding and domestication. Anuenue Fish. Res. Cent. and Dep. of Anim. Sci., Univ. Hawaii, Pap. 9th Joint Meet., U.S./Japan Aquaculture Panel, Kyoto, Japan, May 26–27, 1980.Google Scholar
  60. MALOY, C.R. 1966. Status of fish culture in the North American region. Proc. FAO World Symp. Warm-water Fish Culture, Rome, May 18–25, 1966. FAO Fish Rep. 11 (44).Google Scholar
  61. MEYER, F.P., SNEED, K.E. and ESCHMEYER, P.T. 1973. Second report to the fish farmers. U.S. Dep. Inter., Fish Wildl. Serv., Bur. Sport, Fish. and Wildl., Resour. Publ. 113.Google Scholar
  62. NAEF, E. 1972. Salmon culture. Am. Fish Farmer and World Aquaculture News 3 (4) 12.Google Scholar
  63. NATL. MAR. FISH. SERV. 1980. Personal communication. Little Rock, Ark. NYEGAARD, C.W. 1973. Coho Salmon farming in Puget Sound. Wash. State Univ. Coll. Agric. Coop. Ext. Serv., Ext. Bull. 647.Google Scholar
  64. PILLAY, T.V.R. 1975. The state of aquaculture. Pap. FAO Tech. Conf. Aquaculture, Kyoto, Japan, May 26-June 2, 1976.Google Scholar
  65. RAO, R.M. 1965. Breeding behavior in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man). Fish Technol., India, 2 (1) 19–25.Google Scholar
  66. SANDIFER, P.A., HOPKINS, J.S. and SMITH, T.I.J. 1977. Production of juveniles. In Shrimp and Prawn Farming in the Western Hemisphere. J.A. Hanson and H.L. Goodwin (Editors). Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA.Google Scholar
  67. SANDIFER, P.A., HOPKINS, J.S. and SMITH, T.I.J. 1977. Production of juveniles. In Shrimp and Prawn Farming in the Western Hemisphere. J.A. Hanson and H.L. Goodwin (Editors). Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA.Google Scholar
  68. SHANG, Y.C. 1974. Economic Feasibility of Fresh Water Prawn Farming in Hawaii. Econ. Res. Cent., Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu, June 1972.Google Scholar
  69. SHANG, Y.C. and FUJIMURA, T. 1977. The production economics of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium Rosenbergii) farming in Hawaii. Univ. Hawaii. Hawaii Inst. Mar. Biol. Contrib. 521 and Anuenue Fish. Res. Cent. Contrib. 01.Google Scholar
  70. WAGNER, L.C. 1973. An evaluation of the market for pan–sized salmon. U.S. Dep. Commer., Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Admin., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., Market Res. and Services Div., Res. Contract N–208–0344–72N.Google Scholar
  71. WALDROP, J. E. and SMITH, R.D. 1980. An economic analysis of producing pond-raised catfish for food in Mississippi—A January 1980 update. Miss. State Univ. Dep. Agric. Econ. Res. Rep., AEC 103.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The AVI Publishing Company, Inc. 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Evan Brown
    • 1
  1. 1.University of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations