The dynamic behaviour of robots: characterization and use of models

  • Alain Liégeois
Part of the Robot Technology book series (NSRDS, volume 7)


The dynamic model of an articulated mechanical system represents the relationships (ie differential equations) that exist between the state variables of the mechanism, their derivatives and the external forces, both dissipative and non-dissipative, acting on each segment: the effects of the action of the motors, friction, gravity, springs and reaction forces. In most industrial robots the principal disturbance forces are due to the weight of the segments of the robot and its load, and the friction that occurs in transmission systems with the process of minimizing mechanical play. Because of this, the variations in inertial forces and the presence of centrifugal and Coriolis forces 1 in the design of mechanisms and their control systems have generally not been taken into account. However, industrial and academic research and development into the dynamics of mechanisms has expanded. The resulting expertise, which was formerly the domain of mechanical engineers (eg problems of complex machinery, multi-body satellites) has become of increasing importance to automation and computer scientists when the automatic or semi-automatic control of articulated mechanical systems, as well as computer simulations of such systems, must include the dynamic relationships. Examples are:
  1. 1.

    The study of the manipulator arm in the space shuttle, which is very long (about 15 metres) but with a relatively low mass, and must allow the manipulation of loads of several tons: its behaviour and the definition of the telecontrol systems were studied using dynamic models and three-dimensional graphics, with computer simulations of the arm and its environment in real time.139

  2. 2.

    The analysis of monopodal or multipodal locomotion 140–145 aimed at the design of walking vehicles or robots, including mechanisms capable of running and jumping, and motorized apparatus for the handicapped.



Coriolis Force Extended Body Motor Torque Inertia Tensor Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller 
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© Kogan Page Ltd 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alain Liégeois

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