Advertisement

Behavior to Neurobiology: A Zoologist’s Approach to Nervous Systems

  • Donald Kennedy

Abstract

This symposium was described as an exercise in contemporary history, and the participants were invited to discuss their work. That is a dangerous offer: the temptation is overwhelming to respond with the kind of history that sacrifices realism for plausibility. This dreadful urge overtakes many of us in the introductions to papers, wherein accident is readily transduced to the more elegant processes of reasoned choice and expected outcome. “The experimental system was chosen,” we write, “because it offered an opportunity to test the efficacy of alpha in the absence of competing inputs.” (Translation: when the work was nearly done, we realized that the input was pure alpha.) How often are such motivations remembered conveniently just about the time the introduction is being composed? Yet how comforting they are for the historians of science, whose trade is not much helped by the revelation that scientific progress occasionally resembles the blind staggers more than the measured tread of rationality. A similar conspiracy is engaged in by coaches and sportswriters, who, having a vested interest in the proposition that games are complex and intellectually demanding, insist on a level of retrospective analysis that participants find a little funny. But why should the coach, or even the players, tell on the writer who analyzes the play selection during the winning drive in the Rose Bowl? They know that half the plays were argued out in the huddle, but saying so wouldn’t really help the image of the game.

Keywords

Motor Axon Abdominal Ganglion Efferent Innervation Excitatory Junctional Potential Modus Vivendi 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arvanitaki, A., and Chalizonitis, N. (1949): Prototypes d’interactions neuroniques et transmissions synaptiques. Données bioélectriques de préparations cellulaires. Arch. Sci. Physiol 3:547–566.Google Scholar
  2. Bentley, D. R. (1971): Genetic control of an insect neuronal network. Science 174:1139–1141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bentley, D. R., and Hoy, R. R. (1972): Genetic control of the neuronal network generating cricket (Telegryllus gryllus) song patterns. Anim. Behav 20:478–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bittner, G. D., and Kennedy, D. (1970): Quantitative aspects of transmitter release. J. Cell Biol 47:585–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bullock, T. H. (1953): Comparative aspects of some biological transducers. Fed. Proc 12: 666–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Corda, M., Eklund, G., and Euler, C. v. (1965): External intercostal and phrenic α motor responses to changes in respiratory load. Acta Physiol. Scand 63:391–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davis, W.J. (1971): Functional significance of motoneuron size and soma position in swimmeret system of the lobster. J. Neurophysiol 34:274–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Davis, W. J., Siegler, M. V. S., and Mpitsos, G. J. (1973): Distributed neuronal oscillators and efference copy in the feeding system of Pleurobranchaea. J. Neurophysiol 36:258–274.Google Scholar
  9. Dennis, M.J. (1967): Electrophysiology of the visual system in a nudibranch mollusc. J. Neurophysiol 30:1439–1465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fields, H. L. (1966): Proprioceptive control of posture in the crayfish abdomen. J. Exp. Biol 44:455–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fields, H. L., Evoy, W. H., and Kennedy, D. (1967): Reflex role played by efferent control of an invertebrate stretch receptor. J. Neurophysiol 30:859–874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gorman, A. L. F., and McReynolds, J. S. (1969): Hyperpolarizing and depolarizing receptor potentials in the scallop eye. Science 165:309–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Granit, R. (1955): Receptors and Sensory Perception New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Henneman, E., Somjen, G., and Carpenter, D. O. (1965): Functional significance of cell size in spinal motoneurons. J. Neurophysiol 28:560–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hoy, R. R., Bittner, G. D., and Kennedy, D. (1967): Regeneration in crustacean motoneurons: Evidence for axonal fusion. Science 156:251–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoy, R. R., and Paul, R. C. (1973): Genetic control of song specificity in crickets. Science 180:82–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hunt, C. C., and Kuffler, S. W. (1951): Stretch receptor discharges during muscle contraction. J. Physiol 113:298–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hunt, C. C., and Perl, E. R. (1960): Spinal reflex mechanisms concerned with skeletal muscle. Physiol. Rev 40:538–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kandel, E. R. (1969): The organization of subpopulations in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia. In: The Interneuron (Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by the Brain Research Institute, U. C. L. A., September 1967). Brazier, M. A. B., ed. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, pp. 71–111.Google Scholar
  20. Kater, S. B., and Rowell, C. H. F. (1973): Integration of sensory and centrally programmed components in generation of cyclical feeding activity of Helisoma trivolvis. J. Neurophysiol 36:142–155.Google Scholar
  21. Kennedy, D. (1960): Neural photoreception in a lamellibranch mollusc. J. Gen. Physiol 44:277–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kennedy, D., and Bittner, G. D. (1974): Ultrastructural features of regeneration in crayfish motor axons. Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat (in press).Google Scholar
  23. Kennedy, D., Evoy, W. H., and Hanawalt, J. T. (1966): Release of coordinated behavior in crayfish by single central neurons. Science 154:917–919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Land, M. F. (1968): Functional aspects of the optical and retinal organization of the mollusc eye. In: Invertebrate Receptors (Proceedings of Symposium of the Zoological Society of London, 30–31 May 1967). Newall, G. E., ed. New York: Academic Press, pp. 75–96.Google Scholar
  25. Mpitsos, G.J. (1973): Physiology of vision in the mollusk Lima scabra. J. Neurophysiol 36:371–383.Google Scholar
  26. Sokolove, P. G. (1973): Crayfish stretch receptor and motor unit behavior during abdominal extensions. J. Comp. Physiol 84:251–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Strumwasser, F. (1971): The cellular basis of behavior in Aplysia. J. Psychiatr. Res 8:237–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tauc, L. (1962): Site of origin and propagation of spike in the giant neuron of Aplysia. J. Gen. Physiol 45:1077–1097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Willows, A. O. D. (1968): Behavioral acts elicited by stimulation of single identifiable nerve cells. In: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Nervous Integration Carbon, F. D., ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, pp. 217–243.Google Scholar
  30. Worden, F. G., and Galambos, R., eds. (1972). Auditory processing of biologically significant sounds. Neurosci. Res. Program Bull 10:1–119.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald Kennedy

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations