Advertisement

From Nerves to Eyes

  • William A. H. Rushton

Abstract

My whole life has been fortunate much beyond my deserts. Those in a position to give me the opportunities for research seem to have had a higher expectation of its outcome than I had, and their confidence has been a great encouragement and a spur for me to do better than I thought I could. I am very sensitive to personal relations, and my colleagues have always given me the real friendliness I so much need, despite the ungovernable shaepness of my scientific criticism.

Keywords

Spectral Sensitivity Dark Adaptation Visual Pigment Nerve Trunk Green Background 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alpern, M., Rushton, W.A.H., and Torii, S. (1970a): The size of rod signals. J. Physiol. 206:193–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alpern, M., Rushton, W.A.H., and Torii, S. (1970b): The attenuation of rod signals by backgrounds. J. Physiol. 206:209–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alpern, M., Rushton, W.A.H., and Torii, S. (1970c): The attenuation of rod signals by bleachings. J. Physiol. 207:449–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alpern, M., Rushton, W.A.H., and Torii, S. (1970d): Signals from cones. J. Physiol. 207:463–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barlow, H.B. (1953a): Action potentials from the frog’s retina. J. Physiol. 119:58–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barlow, H.B. (1953b): Summation and inhibition in the frog’s retina. J. Physiol. 119:69–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brindley, G.S., and Willmer, E.N. (1952): The reflexion of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man. J. Physiol. 116:350–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell, F.W., and Rushton, W.A.H. (1955): Measurement of the scotopic pigment in the living human eye. J. Physiol. 130:131–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Donner, K.O. (1959): The effect of a coloured adapting field on the spectral sensitivity of frog retinal elements. J. Physiol. 149:318–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Donner, K.O., and Rushton, W.A.H. (1959a): Retinal stimulation by light substitution. J. Physiol. 149:288–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Donner, K.O., and Rushton, W.A.H. (1959b): Rod-cone interaction in the frog’s retina analysed by the Stiles-Crawford effect and by dark adaptation. J. Physiol. 149:303–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dowling, J.E. (1960): Chemistry of visual adaptation in the rat. Nature 188:114–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hecht, S. (1937): Rods, cones, and the chemical basis of vision. Physiol. Rev. 17:239–290.Google Scholar
  14. Hecht, S., Shlaer, S., and Pirenne, M.H. (1942): Energy, quanta and vision. J. Gen. Physiol. 25: 819–840.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hodgkin, A.L. (1938): The subthreshold potentials in a crustacean nerve fibre. Proc. R. Soc. B. 126:87–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kuffler, S.W. (1953): Discharge patterns and functional organization of mammalian retina. J. Neurophysiol. 16:37–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lapicque, L. (1926): L’Excitabilité en Fonction du Temps. La Chronaxie, sa Signification et sa Mesure. Paris: Les Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  18. Lorente de Nó, R. (1947): A Study of Nerve Physiology. Parts 1 and 2 (Studies from the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, Vols. 131 and 132). New York: The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.Google Scholar
  19. Lussier, J.J., and Rushton, W.A.H. (1951): The relation between the space constant and conduction velocity in nerve fibres of the A group from the frog’s sciatic. J. Physiol. 114:399–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lussier, J.J., and Rushton, W.A.H. (1952): The excitability of a single fibre in a nerve trunk. J. Physiol. 117:87–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Mitchell, D.E., and Rushton, W.A.H. (1971a): Visual pigments in dichromats. Vision Res. 11: 1033–1043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mitchell, D.E., and Rushton, W.A.H. (1971b): The red/green pigments of normal vision. Vision Res. 11:1045–1056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pitt, F.H.G. (1935): Reports of the Committee upon the Physiology of Vision. XIV. Characteristics of Dichromatic Vision with an Appendix on Anomalous Trichromatic Vision (Medical Research Council Special Report Series, no. 200). London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  24. Rashbass, C. (1949): The relationship between the slot excitability and the excitability due to a single pole. J. Physiol. 109:354–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Rashbass, C., and Rushton, W.A.H. (1949a): Space distribution of excitability in the frog’s sciatic nerve stimulated by slot electrodes. J. Physiol. 109:327–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Rashbass, C., and Rushton, W.A.H. (1949b): Space distribution of excitability in the frog’s sciatic nerve stimulated by polar electrodes. J. Physiol. 109:343–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Rashbass, C., and Rushton, W.A.H. (1949c): The relation of structure to the spread of excitation in the frog’s sciatic trunk. J. Physiol. 110:110–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Rushton, W.A.H. (1927): The effect upon the threshold for nervous excitation of the length of nerve exposed, and the angle between current and nerve. J. Physiol. 63: 357–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Rushton, W.A.H. (1928a): Excitation of bent nerve. J. Physiol. 65:173–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Rushton, W.A.H. (1928b): Nerve excitation by multipolar electrodes. J. Physiol. 66:217–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Rushton, W.A.H. (1945): Action potentials from the isolated nerve cord of the earthworm. Proc. R.Soc.B. 132:423–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rushton, W.A.H. (1946): Reflex conduction in the giant fibres of the earthworm. Proc. R. Soc. B. 133:109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rushton, W.A.H. (1949): The site of excitation in the nerve trunk of the frog. J. Physiol. 109:314–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Rushton, W.A.H. (1952): Apparatus for analysing the light reflected from the eye of the cat. J. Physiol. 117:47P–48P (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Rushton, W.A.H. (1958): Kinetics of cone pigments measured objectively on the living human fovea. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 74:291–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rushton, W.A.H. (1959): Excitation pools in the frog’s retina. J. Physiol. 149:327–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Rushton, W.A.H. (1961): Rhodopsin measurement and dark-adaptation in a subject deficient in cone vision. J. Physiol. 156:193–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Rushton, W.A.H. (1963a): A cone pigment in the protanope. J. Physiol. 168:345–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. William A. H. Rushton 292Google Scholar
  40. Rushton, W.A.H. (1963b): Cone pigment kinetics in the protanope. J. Physiol. 168:374–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Rushton, W.A.H. (1965a): A foveal pigment in the deuteranope. J. Physiol. 176:24–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Rushton, W.A.H. (1965b): Cone pigment kinetics in the deuteranope. J. Physiol. 176:38–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Rushton, W.A.H., and Cohen, R.D. (1954): Visual purple level and the course of dark adaptation. Nature 173:301–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rushton, W.A.H., Powell, D.S., and White, K.D. (1973a): Exchange thresholds in dichromats. Vision Res. 13:1993–2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rushton, W.A.H., Powell, D.S., and White, K.D. (1973b): The spectral sensitivity of “red” and “green” cones in the normal eye. Vision Res. 13:2003–2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rushton, W.A.H., Powell, D.S., and White, K.D. (1973c): Pigments in anomalous trichromats. Vision Res. 13:2017–2031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wald, G. (1954): On the mechanism of the visual threshold and visual adaptation. Science 119: 887–892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Weale, R.A. (1953): Photochemical reactions in the living cat’s retina. J. Physiol. 122:322–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • William A. H. Rushton

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations