CT, MRI, and PET Studies of Hippocampal Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease
Postmortem studies reveal numerous biochemical and neurotransmitter deficits in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients relative to elderly controls. Many of these deficits are more pronounced in the hippocampus; than in the neocortex (for a review see Selkoe and Kosik, 1983). There are many structural hippocampal abnormalities documented in AD. They include neuronal loss, granulovacuolar degeneration, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuritic plaques (Kemper, 1984). In AD these neuropathological findings show a consistent topography with respect to the hippocampal formation and its projections. Pyramidal cells are the primary neuronal population involved. These affected cells are located within the entorhinal cortex (the neurons of origin of the perforant pathway), the subiculum, CA1 of the hippocampus, and the temporal association cortex. This pattern of degeneration results in the “isolation” of the hippocampal formation from its neocortical association areas (Hyman et al., 1984).
KeywordsHippocampal Atrophy Hippocampal Pathology Granulovacuolar Degeneration Hippocampal Fissure Hippocampal Change
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- de Leon MJ, Ferris SH, George AE, Christman DR, Fowler JS, Gentes C, Reis-Berg B, Gee B, Emmerich M, Yonekura Y, Brodie J, Kricheff II, Wolf AP (1983): Positron emission tomography studies of aging and Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Neuroradiology 4:568–571Google Scholar
- Duara R, Grady C, Haxby J, Sundaram M, Cutler NR, Heston L, Moore A, Schlageter N, Larson S, Rapoport SI (1986): Positron emission tomography in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 36:879–887Google Scholar
- George AE, de Leon MJ, Stylopoulos LA, Miller J, Kluger A, Smith G, Miller DC (1990): CT diagnostic features of Alzheimer disease: Importance of the coronal/hippocampal fissure complex. American Journal of Neuroradiology 11:101–107Google Scholar
- Jagust WJ, Friedland RP, Budinger TF, Koss E, Ober B (1988): Longitudinal studies of regional cerebral metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 38:909–912Google Scholar
- Kemper T (1984): Neuroanatomical and neuropathological changes in normal aging and in dementia. In: Clinical Neurology of Aging, Albert ML, ed., New York: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
- Reisberg B, Ferris SH, de Leon MJ, Crook T (1982): The global deterioration scale for assessment of primary degenerative dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry 139:1136–1139Google Scholar
- Selkoe D, Kosik K (1983): Neurochemical changes with aging. In: Clinical Neurology of Aging, Albert ML, ed., New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 53–75Google Scholar