In the proposed S-S models, the process of forming and using S-S associations is a relatively complex, expensive process, at least as compared to the formation and use of S-R associations. Since it is not strictly necessary for the acquisition of appropriate behavior, it is interesting to ask whether all (or any) organisms actually use such a mechanism, and if so to what extent. There are at least two good reasons why some organisms may not. First, since it is complex, it might not have evolved in all lineages. Second, since it is expensive (in hardware), simple organisms might not have room. In addition, even if used, the process might be used only sparingly, according to each organism’s particular cost/benefit priorities. At the other extreme, since the S-S model alone is sufficient for adaptive behavior, it has been suggested that the S-R model is dispensable (Bolles, 1972; Bindra, 1976). This chapter completes the development of the S-S model by considering some of the biological evidence for and against such mechanisms.
KeywordsGoal State Parallel Search Connectionistic Problem Total Motivation Left Path
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